DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232), 2015, January-March issue

CITATION: 

Neagu M, Constantin C, Dumitrascu GR, Lupu AR, Caruntu C, Boda D, Zurac S. Inflammation markers in cutaneous melanoma - edgy biomarkers for prognosis. Discoveries 2015, Jan-Mar; 3(1): e38. DOI: 10.15190/d.2015.30

 Submitted: February 13, 2015; Revised: March 18, 2015; AcceptedMarch 19, 2015Published: March 27, 2015;

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Inflammation markers in cutaneous melanoma - edgy biomarkers for prognosis

Monica Neagu (1,2,*), Carolina Constantin (1), Georgiana Roxana Dumitrascu (1), Andreea Roxana Lupu (1), Constantin Caruntu (1,3), Daniel Boda (3), Sabina Zurac (4,5)


(1) Immunobiology Laboratory, “Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology and Biomedical Sciences, Bucharest, Romania; (2) Faculty of Biochemistry, University of Bucharest; (3) Dermatology Research Laboratory, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine & Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania; (4) Department of Pathology, "Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania; (5) Colentina University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania

*Correspondence to: Dr. Habil. Monica Neagu, Immunobiology Laboratory, “Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology, 99–101 Splaiul Independentei, 050096, Bucharest, Romania; Phone: +40213194528; 

Abstract

There is a fine balance between inflammation and tumorigenesis. While environmentally induced inflammatory condition can precede a malignant transformation, in other cases an oncogenic change of unknown origin can induce an inflammatory microenvironment that promotes the development of tumors. Regardless of its origin, maintaining the inflammation milieu has many tumor-promoting effects. As a result, inflammation can aid the proliferation and survival of malignant cells, can promote angiogenesis and metastasis, can down-regulate innate/adaptive immune responses, and can alter responses to hormones and chemotherapeutic agents. There is an abundance of studies unveiling molecular pathways of cancer-related inflammation; this wealth of information brings new insights into biomarkers domain in the diagnosis and treatment improvement pursue.

In cutaneous tissue there is an established link between tissue damage, inflammation, and cancer development. Inflammation is a self-limiting process in normal healthy physiological conditions, while tumorigenesis is a complex mechanism of constitutive pathway activation. Once more, in cutaneous melanoma, there is an unmet need for inflammatory biomarkers that could improve prognostication. Targeting inflammation and coping with the phenotypic plasticity of melanoma cells represent rational strategies to specifically interfere with metastatic progression. We have shown that there is a prototype of intratumor inflammatory infiltrate depicting a good prognosis, infiltrate that is composed of numerous T cells CD3+, Langerhans cells, few/absent B cells CD20+ and few/absent plasma cells. Circulating immune cells characterized by phenotype particularities are delicately linked to the stage melanoma is diagnosed in. Hence circulatory immune sub-populations, with activated or suppressor phenotype would give the physician a more detailed immune status of the patient. A panel of tissue/circulatory immune markers can complete the immune status, can add value to the overall prognostic of the patient and, as a result direct/redirect the therapy choice. The future lies within establishing low-cost, affordable/available, easily reproducible assays that will complete the pre-clinical parameters of the patient.

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