Existing users Log In New users Sign up

microRNA regulators of apoptosis in cancer

DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232), 2016, January-March issue


Bucur O. microRNA regulators of apoptosis in cancer. Discoveries 2016, Jan-Mar; 4(1): e57. DOI: 10.15190/d.2016.4

Submitted: March 25h, 2016Revised: March 31st, 2016Accepted: March 31th, 2016Published: April 1st, 2016;

 GO BACK to 2016, January-March issue


microRNA regulators of apoptosis in cancer

Octavian Bucur*

Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Ludwig Cancer Center at Harvard, Boston, MA, USA

*Correspondence to: Octavian Bucur, PhD, MD, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Ludwig Cancer Center at Harvard, Boston, MA, USA, Email: obucur@bidmc.harvard.edu


This brief review summarizes our current knowledge on the microRNAs that regulate apoptosis machinery and are potentially involved in the dysregulation or deregulation of apoptosis, a well known hallmark of cancer. microRNAs are critical regulators of the most important cellular processes, including apoptosis. Expression of microRNAs is found to be dysregulated in many malignancies, leading to apoptosis inhibition in cancer, or resistance to current therapies. To date, there are over 80 microRNAs directly involved in apoptosis regulation or dysregulation that can impact cancer detection, initiation, progression, invasion, metastasis or resistance to anti-cancer therapy. Development of microRNA-based therapeutic strategies is now taking shape in the clinic. Thus, these microRNAs represent potential targets or tools for cancer therapy in the future. 

Access full text of the manuscript here: 


1. Bucur O, Gaidos G, Yatawara A, Pennarun B, Rupasinghe C, Roux J et al. A novel caspase 8 selective small molecule potentiates TRAIL-induced cell death. Sci Rep. 2015 May 11;5:9893.

2. Ray S, Bucur O, Almasan A. Sensitization of prostate carcinoma cells to Apo2L/TRAIL by a Bcl-2 family protein inhibitor. Apoptosis. 2005 Dec;10(6):1411-8.

3. Melet A, Song K, Bucur O, Jagani Z, Grassian AR, Khosravi-Far R. Apoptotic pathways in tumor progression and therapy. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;615:47-79

4. Bucur O, Ray S, Bucur MC, Almasan A. APO2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in prostate cancer therapy. Front Biosci. 2006 May 1;11:1549-68

5. Neumann S, El Maadidi S, Faletti L, Haun F, Labib S, Schejtman A, Maurer U, Borner C. How do viruses control mitochondria-mediated apoptosis? Virus Res. 2015 Nov 2;209:45-55

6. Bucur O, Stancu AL, Khosravi-Far R, Almasan A. Analysis of apoptosis methods recently used in Cancer Research and Cell Death & Disease publications. Cell Death Dis. 2012 Feb 2;3:e263.

7. Silke J, Rickard JA, Gerlic M. The diverse role of RIP kinases in necroptosis and inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2015 Jul;16(7):689-97.

8. Giza DE, Vasilescu C, Calin GA. Key principles of miRNA involvement in human diseases. Discoveries 2014, Oct-Dec; 2(4): e34. DOI: 10.15190/d.2014.26

9. Ziga Strmsek, Tanja Kunej. Data integration of 104 studies related with microRNA epigenetics revealed that miR-34 gene family is silenced by DNA methylation in the highest number of cancer types. Discoveries 2014, Apr-Jun; 2(2): e18. DOI: 10.15190/d.2014.10

10. Zhang, H., Li, Y. & Lai, M. The microRNA network and tumor metastasis. Oncogene, 1-12 (2009).

11. Croce, C.M. Causes and consequences of microRNA dysregulation in cancer. Nat Rev Genet. 10, 704-14 (2009).

12. Davalos, V. & Esteller, M. MicroRNAs and cancer epigenetics: a macrorevolution. Curr Opin Oncol. 22, 35-45 (2010).

13. Wang, Y. & Lee, C.G. MicroRNA and cancer--focus on apoptosis. J Cell Mol Med. 13, 12-23 (2009)

14. Friedman RC, Farh KK, Burge CB, Bartel DP. Most mammalian mRNAs are conserved targets of microRNAs. Genome Res. 2009 Jan;19(1):92-105.

15. Veeranagouda Y, Rival P, Prades C, Mariet C, Léonard JF, Gautier JC et al. Identification of microRNAs in Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus Monkey) by Homology Search and Experimental Validation by Small RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR Using Kidney Cortex Tissues. PLoS One. 2015 Nov 12;10(11):e0142708.

16. Le, M.T. et al. MicroRNA-125b is a novel negative regulator of p53. Genes Dev. 23, 862-76 (2009).

17. Ji, Q. et al. MicroRNA miR-34 inhibits human pancreatic cancer tumor-initiating cells. PLoS One 4, e6816 (2009).

18. Bommer, G.T. et al. p53-mediated activation of miRNA34 candidate tumor-suppressor genes. Curr Biol. 17, 1298-307 (2007).

19. Hermeking, H. The miR-34 family in cancer and apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 17, 193-9 (2010).

20. Razumilava N, Bronk SF, Smoot RL, Fingas CD, Werneburg NW, Roberts LR, Mott JL. miR-25 targets TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor-4 and promotes apoptosis resistance in cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatology. 2012 Feb;55(2):465-75.

21. Garofalo, M., Condorelli, G., Croce, C.M. & Condorelli, G. MicroRNAs as regulators of death receptors signaling. Cell Death Differ. 17, 300-8 (2010).

22. Miller, T.E. et al. MicroRNA-221/222 confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer by targeting p27Kip1. 2008 283, 29897-903 (2008).

23. Mott, J.L., Kobayashi, S., Bronk, S.F. & Gores, G.J. mir-29 regulates Mcl-1 protein expression and apoptosis. Oncogene 26, 6133-40 (2007).

24. Crawford, M. et al. MicroRNA 133B targets pro-survival molecules MCL-1 and BCL2L2 in lung cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 388, 483-9 (2009).

25. Inomata, M. et al. MicroRNA-17-92 down-regulates expression of distinct targets in different B-cell lymphoma subtypes. Blood 113, 396-402 (2009)

26. Gramantieri, L. et al. MicroRNA-221 targets Bmf in hepatocellular carcinoma and correlates with tumor multifocality. Clin Cancer Res. 15, 5073-81 (2009).

27. Cui R, Kim T, Fassan M, Meng W, Sun HL, Jeon YJ et al. MicroRNA-224 is implicated in lung cancer pathogenesis through targeting caspase-3 and caspase-7. Oncotarget. 2015 Sep 8;6(26):21802-15

28. Han H, Li W, Shen H, Zhang J, Zhu Y, Li Y. microRNA-129-5p, a c-Myc negative target, affects hepatocellular carcinoma progression by blocking the Warburg effect. J Mol Cell Biol. 2016 Mar 21.

29. Dumitrascu GR, Bucur O.  Critical physiological and pathological functions of Forkhead Box O tumor suppressors. Discoveries 2013, Oct-Dec; 1(1): e5. DOI: 10.15190/d.2013.5

30. Xu J, Tang Y, Bei Y, Ding S, Che L, Yao J, Wang H, Lv D, Xiao J. miR-19b attenuates H2O2-induced apoptosis in rat H9C2 cardiomyocytes via targeting PTEN. Oncotarget. 2016 Feb 24.

31. Song H, Zhang Y, Liu N, Wan C, Zhang D, Zhao S, Kong Y, Yuan L. miR-92b regulates glioma cells proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis via PTEN/Akt signaling pathway. J Physiol Biochem. 2016 Feb 18

32. Chakraborty C, Sharma AR, Patra BC, Bhattacharya M, Sharma G, Lee SS MicroRNAs mediated regulation of MAPK signaling pathways in chronic myeloid leukemia. Oncotarget. 2016 Mar 8

33. Kota, J. et al. Therapeutic microRNA delivery suppresses tumorigenesis in a murine liver cancer model. Cell 137, 1005-17 (2009).

34. Huang G, Nishimoto K, Zhou Z, Hughes D, Kleinerman ES. miR-20a encoded by the miR-17-92 cluster increases the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cells by regulating Fas expression. Cancer Res. 2012 Feb 15;72(4):908-16.

35. Wu MF, Yang J, Xiang T, Shi YY, Liu LJ. miR-21 targets Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cell line MCF-7. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2014 Apr;34(2):190-4.

36. Li B, Sun M, Gao F, Liu W, Yang Y, Liu H, Cheng Y, Liu C, Cai J. Up-regulated expression of miR-23a/b targeted the pro-apoptotic Fas in radiation-induced thymic lymphoma. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;32(6):1729-40.

37. Hau A, Ceppi P, Peter ME. CD95 is part of a let-7/p53/miR-34 regulatory network. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49636.

38. Wang Z, Liu M, Zhu H, Zhang W, He S, Hu C, Quan L, Bai J, Xu N. miR-106a is frequently upregulated in gastric cancer and inhibits the extrinsic apoptotic pathway by targeting FAS. Mol Carcinog. 2013 Aug;52(8):634-46.

39. Gao F, Chen S, Sun M, Mitchel RE, Li B, Chu Z et al. MiR-467a is upregulated in radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas and regulates apoptosis by targeting Fas and Bax. Int J Biol Sci. 2015 Jan 1;11(1):109-21.

40. Weng H, Huang H, Dong B, Zhao P, Zhou H, Qu L. Inhibition of miR-17 and miR-20a by oridonin triggers apoptosis and reverses chemoresistance by derepressing BIM-S. Cancer Res. 2014 Aug 15;74(16):4409-19.

41. Yan HJ, Liu WS, Sun WH, Wu J, Ji M, Wang Q et al. miR-17-5p inhibitor enhances chemosensitivity to gemcitabine via upregulating Bim expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Dig Dis Sci. 2012 Dec;57(12):3160-7.

42. Pernaute B, Spruce T, Smith KM, Sánchez-Nieto JM, Manzanares M, Cobb B et al. MicroRNAs control the apoptotic threshold in primed pluripotent stem cells through regulation of BIM. Genes Dev. 2014 Sep 1;28(17):1873-8.

43. Zhang H, Zuo Z, Lu X, Wang L, Wang H, Zhu Z. MiR-25 regulates apoptosis by targeting Bim in human ovarian cancer. Oncol Rep. 2012 Feb;27(2):594-8.

44. Kan T, Sato F, Ito T, Matsumura N, David S, Cheng Y et al. The miR-106b-25 polycistron, activated by genomic amplification, functions as an oncogene by suppressing p21 and Bim. Gastroenterology. 2009 May;136(5):1689-700.

45. Wang H, Ye Y, Zhu Z, Mo L, Lin C, Wang Q et al. MiR-124 Regulates Apoptosis and Autophagy Process in MPTP Model of Parkinson's Disease by Targeting to Bim. Brain Pathol. 2016 Mar;26(2):167-76.

46. Kim J, Zhang Y, Skalski M, Hayes J, Kefas B, Schiff D et al. microRNA-148a is a prognostic oncomiR that targets MIG6 and BIM to regulate EGFR and apoptosis in glioblastoma. Cancer Res. 2014 Mar 1;74(5):1541-53.

47. Ouyang YB, Lu Y, Yue S, Giffard RG. miR-181 targets multiple Bcl-2 family members and influences apoptosis and mitochondrial function in astrocytes. Mitochondrion. 2012 Mar;12(2):213-9.

48. Li S, Li F, Niu R, Zhang H, Cui A, An W, Wang X. Mir-192 suppresses apoptosis and promotes proliferation in esophageal aquamous cell caicinoma by targeting Bim. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 Jul 1;8(7):8048-56.

49. Floyd DH, Zhang Y, Dey BK, Kefas B, Breit H, Marks K et al. Novel anti-apoptotic microRNAs 582-5p and 363 promote human glioblastoma stem cell survival via direct inhibition of caspase 3, caspase 9, and Bim. PLoS One. 2014 May 7;9(5):e96239.

50. Romano G, Acunzo M, Garofalo M, Di Leva G, Cascione L, Zanca C et al. MiR-494 is regulated by ERK1/2 and modulates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer through BIM down-regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 9;109(41):16570-5.

51. Adlakha YK, Saini N. MicroRNA-128 downregulates Bax and induces apoptosis in human embryonic kidney cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011 Apr;68(8):1415-28.

52. Ji S, Shao G, Lv X, Liu Y, Fan Y, Wu A et al. Downregulation of miRNA-128 sensitises breast cancer cell to chemodrugs by targeting Bax. Cell Biol Int. 2013 Jul;37(7):653-8.

53. Zhao H, Zhao D, Tan G, Liu Y, Zhuang L, Liu T. Bufalin promotes apoptosis of gastric cancer by down-regulation of miR-298 targeting bax. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Mar 15;8(3):3420-8.

54. Gao F, Chen S, Sun M, Mitchel RE, Li B, Chu Z et al. MiR-467a is upregulated in radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas and regulates apoptosis by targeting Fas and Bax. Int J Biol Sci. 2015 Jan 1;11(1):109-21.

55. Cimmino A, Calin GA, Fabbri M, Iorio MV, Ferracin M, Shimizu M et al. miR-15 and miR-16 induce apoptosis by targeting BCL2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 27;102(39):13944-9.

56. Shen J, Wan R, Hu G, Yang L, Xiong J, Wang F et al. miR-15b and miR-16 induce the apoptosis of rat activated pancreatic stellate cells by targeting Bcl-2 in vitro. Pancreatology. 2012 Mar-Apr;12(2):91-9.

57. Xia L, Zhang D, Du R, Pan Y, Zhao L, Sun S et al. miR-15b and miR-16 modulate multidrug resistance by targeting BCL2 in human gastric cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2008 Jul 15;123(2):372-9.

58. Zhang Y, Huang F, Wang J, Peng L, Luo H. MiR-15b mediates liver cancer cells proliferation through targeting BCL-2. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 Dec 1;8(12):15677-83.

59. Yang TQ, Lu XJ, Wu TF, Ding DD, Zhao ZH, Chen GL et al. MicroRNA-16 inhibits glioma cell growth and invasion through suppression of BCL2 and the nuclear factor-κB1/MMP9 signaling pathway. Cancer Sci. 2014 Mar;105(3):265-71.

60. Li Y, Yan L, Zhang W, Wang H, Chen W, Hu N et al. miR-21 inhibitor suppresses proliferation and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through down-regulation of BCL2 expression. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014 May 15;7(6):3478-87.

61. Singh R, Saini N. Downregulation of BCL2 by miRNAs augments drug-induced apoptosis--a combined computational and experimental approach. J Cell Sci. 2012 Mar 15;125(Pt 6):1568-78.

62. Liao WT, Ye YP, Zhang NJ, Li TT, Wang SY, Cui YM et al. MicroRNA-30b functions as a tumour suppressor in human colorectal cancer by targeting KRAS, PIK3CD and BCL2. J Pathol. 2014 Mar;232(4):415-27.

63. He M, Gao L, Zhang S, Tao L, Wang J, Yang J et al. Prognostic significance of miR-34a and its target proteins of FOXP1, p53, and BCL2 in gastric MALT lymphoma and DLBCL. Gastric Cancer. 2014;17(3):431-41.

64. Tong Z, Liu N, Lin L, Guo X, Yang D, Zhang Q. miR-125a-5p inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in colon cancer via targeting BCL2, BCL2L12 and MCL1. Biomed Pharmacother. 2015 Oct;75:129-36

65. Zhu W, Xu H, Zhu D, Zhi H, Wang T, Wang J et al. miR-200bc/429 cluster modulates multidrug resistance of human cancer cell lines by targeting BCL2 and XIAP. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012 Mar;69(3):723-31.

66. Yan D, Dong XD, Chen X, Yao S, Wang L, Wang J et al. Role of microRNA-182 in posterior uveal melanoma: regulation of tumor development through MITF, BCL2 and cyclin D2. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40967.

67. Zhen Y, Liu Z, Yang H, Yu X, Wu Q, Hua S et al. Tumor suppressor PDCD4 modulates miR-184-mediated direct suppression of C-MYC and BCL2 blocking cell growth and survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cell Death Dis. 2013 Oct 24;4:e872.

68. Kuwano Y, Nishida K, Kajita K, Satake Y, Akaike Y, Fujita K et al. Transformer 2β and miR-204 regulate apoptosis through competitive binding to 3' UTR of BCL2 mRNA. Cell Death Differ. 2015 May;22(5):815-25.

69. Verdoodt B, Neid M, Vogt M, Kuhn V, Liffers ST, Palisaar RJ et al. MicroRNA-205, a novel regulator of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, is downregulated in prostate cancer. Int J Oncol. 2013 Jul;43(1):307-14.

70. Sun C, Liu Z, Li S, Yang C, Xue R, Xi Y et al. Down-regulation of c-Met and Bcl2 by microRNA-206, activates apoptosis, and inhibits tumor cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. Oncotarget. 2015 Sep 22;6(28):25533-74.

71. Chio CC, Lin JW, Cheng HA, Chiu WT, Wang YH, Wang JJ et al. MicroRNA-210 targets antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression and mediates hypoxia-induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells. Arch Toxicol. 2013 Mar;87(3):459-68.

72. Hu J, Fang Y, Cao Y, Qin R, Chen Q. miR-449a Regulates proliferation and chemosensitivity to cisplatin by targeting cyclin D1 and BCL2 in SGC7901 cells. Dig Dis Sci. 2014 Feb;59(2):336-45.

73. Wang T, Ge G, Ding Y, Zhou X, Huang Z, Zhu W et al. MiR-503 regulates cisplatin resistance of human gastric cancer cell lines by targeting IGF1R and BCL2. Chin Med J (Engl). 2014;127(12):2357-62.

74. Yang M, Shan X, Zhou X, Qiu T, Zhu W, Ding Y et al. miR-1271 regulates cisplatin resistance of human gastric cancer cell lines by targeting IGF1R, IRS1, mTOR, and BCL2. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2014;14(6):884-91.

75. Kim KB, Kim K, Bae S, Choi Y, Cha HJ, Kim SY et al. MicroRNA-1290 promotes asiatic acid‑induced apoptosis by decreasing BCL2 protein level in A549 non‑small cell lung carcinoma cells. Oncol Rep. 2014 Sep;32(3):1029-36.

76. Shimizu S, Takehara T, Hikita H, Kodama T, Miyagi T, Hosui A et al. The let-7 family of microRNAs inhibits Bcl-xL expression and potentiates sorafenib-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2010 May;52(5):698-704.

77. Tian N, Han Z, Li Z, Zhou M, Fan C. Lin28/let-7/Bcl-xL pathway: the underlying mechanism of drug resistance in Hep3B cells. Oncol Rep. 2014 Sep;32(3):1050-6.

78. Zhan M, Qu Q, Wang G, Zhou H. Let-7c sensitizes acquired cisplatin-resistant A549 cells by targeting ABCC2 and Bcl-XL. Pharmazie. 2013 Dec;68(12):955-61.

79. Zhang Y, Schiff D, Park D, Abounader R. MicroRNA-608 and microRNA-34a regulate chordoma malignancy by targeting EGFR, Bcl-xL and MET. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 12;9(3):e91546.

80. Ji F, Zhang H, Wang Y, Li M, Xu W, Kang Y et al. MicroRNA-133a, downregulated in osteosarcoma, suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis by targeting Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Bone. 2013 Sep;56(1):220-6.

81. Guo R, Wang Y, Shi WY, Liu B, Hou SQ, Liu L.MicroRNA miR-491-5p targeting both TP53 and Bcl-XL induces cell apoptosis in SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells through mitochondria mediated pathway. Molecules. 2012 Dec 11;17(12):14733-47.

82. Denoyelle C, Lambert B, Meryet-Figuière M, Vigneron N, Brotin E, Lecerf C et al. miR-491-5p-induced apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma depends on the direct inhibition of both BCL-XL and EGFR leading to BIM activation. Cell Death Dis. 2014 Oct 9;5:e1445.

83. Chiyomaru T, Yamamura S, Fukuhara S, Hidaka H, Majid S, Saini S et al. Genistein up-regulates tumor suppressor microRNA-574-3p in prostate cancer. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58929.

84. Zhang Y, Schiff D, Park D, Abounader R. MicroRNA-608 and microRNA-34a regulate chordoma malignancy by targeting EGFR, Bcl-xL and MET. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 12;9(3):e91546.

85. Gao J, Li L, Wu M, Liu M, Xie X, Guo J et al. MiR-26a inhibits proliferation and migration of breast cancer through repression of MCL-1. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 4;8(6):e65138.

86. Desjobert C, Renalier MH, Bergalet J, Dejean E, Joseph N, Kruczynski A et al. MiR-29a down-regulation in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas contributes to apoptosis blockade through MCL-1 overexpression. Blood. 2011 Jun 16;117(24):6627-37.

87. Zhang YK, Wang H, Leng Y, Li ZL, Yang YF, Xiao FJ et al. Overexpression of microRNA-29b induces apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells through down regulating Mcl-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Oct 14;414(1):233-9.

88. Xu XD, Wu XH, Fan YR, Tan B, Quan Z, Luo CL. Exosome-derived microRNA-29c induces apoptosis of BIU-87 cells by down regulating BCL-2 and MCL-1. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(8):3471-6.

89. Konno Y, Dong P, Xiong Y, Suzuki F, Lu J, Cai M et al. MicroRNA-101 targets EZH2, MCL-1 and FOS to suppress proliferation, invasion and stem cell-like phenotype of aggressive endometrial cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2014 Aug 15;5(15):6049-62.

90. Liu X, Tang H, Chen J, Song C, Yang L, Liu P et al. MicroRNA-101 inhibits cell progression and increases paclitaxel sensitivity by suppressing MCL-1 expression in human triple-negative breast cancer. Oncotarget. 2015 Aug 21;6(24):20070-83.

91. Gong J, Zhang JP, Li B, Zeng C, You K, Chen MX et al. MicroRNA-125b promotes apoptosis by regulating the expression of Mcl-1, Bcl-w and IL-6R. Oncogene. 2013 Jun 20;32(25):3071-9.

92. Rao YM, Shi HR, Ji M, Chen CH. MiR-106a targets Mcl-1 to suppress cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer A2780 cells. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2013 Aug;33(4):567-72.

93. Ji F, Zhang H, Wang Y, Li M, Xu W, Kang Y et al. MicroRNA-133a, downregulated in osteosarcoma, suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis by targeting Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Bone. 2013 Sep;56(1):220-6.

94. Lu F, Zhang J, Ji M, Li P, Du Y, Wang H et al. miR-181b increases drug sensitivity in acute myeloid leukemia via targeting HMGB1 and Mcl-1. Int J Oncol. 2014 Jul;45(1):383-92.

95. Zarogoulidis P, Petanidis S, Kioseoglou E, Domvri K, Anestakis D, Zarogoulidis K. MiR-205 and miR-218 expression is associated with carboplatin chemoresistance and regulation of apoptosis via Mcl-1 and Survivin in lung cancer cells. Cell Signal. 2015 Aug;27(8):1576-88.

96. Kwon JE, Kim BY, Kwak SY, Bae IH, Han YH. Ionizing radiation-inducible microRNA miR-193a-3p induces apoptosis by directly targeting Mcl-1. Apoptosis. 2013 Jul;18(7):896-909.

97. Chen J, Zhang X, Lentz C, Abi-Daoud M, Paré GC, Yang X et al. miR-193b Regulates Mcl-1 in Melanoma. Am J Pathol. 2011 Nov;179(5):2162-8.

98. Long J, Ji Z, Jiang K, Wang Z, Meng G. miR-193b Modulates Resistance to Doxorubicin in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Downregulating MCL-1. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:373574.

99. Cai D, He K, Chang S, Tong D, Huang C. MicroRNA-302b Enhances the Sensitivity of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines to 5-FU via Targeting Mcl-1 and DPYD. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Oct 6;16(10):23668-82.

100. Zhang T, Zou P, Wang T, Xiang J, Cheng J, Chen D et al. Down-regulation of miR-320 associated with cancer progression and cell apoptosis via targeting Mcl-1 in cervical cancer. Tumour Biol. 2016 Jan 11.

101. Zhang R, Li Y, Dong X, Peng L, Nie X. MiR-363 sensitizes cisplatin-induced apoptosis targeting in Mcl-1 in breast cancer. Med Oncol. 2014 Dec;31(12):347.

102. Xie Y, Tobin LA, Camps J, Wangsa D, Yang J, Rao M et al. MicroRNA-24 regulates XIAP to reduce the apoptosis threshold in cancer cells. Oncogene. 2013 May 9;32(19):2442-51.

103. Zhang X, Huang L, Zhao Y, Tan W. Downregulation of miR-130a contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells by targeting X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) directly. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2013 Dec;45(12):995-1001.

104. Ye M, Zhang J, Zhang J, Miao Q, Yao L, Zhang J. Curcumin promotes apoptosis by activating the p53-miR-192-5p/215-XIAP pathway in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Lett. 2015 Feb 1;357(1):196-205.

105. Zhu W, Xu H, Zhu D, Zhi H, Wang T, Wang J et al. miR-200bc/429 cluster modulates multidrug resistance of human cancer cell lines by targeting BCL2 and XIAP. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012 Mar;69(3):723-31.

106. Ren Y, Han X, Yu K, Sun S, Zhen L, Li Z et al. microRNA-200c downregulates XIAP expression to suppress proliferation and promote apoptosis of triple-negative breast cancer cells. Mol Med Rep. 2014 Jul;10(1):315-21.

107. Wang C, Ju H, Shen C, Tong Z. miR-429 mediates δ-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells by targeting XIAP. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Sep 15;8(9):15648-56.

108. Pang Y, Mao H, Shen L, Zhao Z, Liu R, Liu P. MiR-519d represses ovarian cancer cell proliferation and enhances cisplatin-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro by targeting XIAP. Onco Targets Ther. 2014 Apr 23;7:587-97.

109. Cheng Q, Zhang X, Xu X, Lu X. MiR-618 inhibits anaplastic thyroid cancer by repressing XIAP in one ATC cell line. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2014 Sep;75(4):187-93.

110. Ergun S, Arman K, Temiz E, Bozgeyik I, Yumrutaş Ö, Safdar M et al. Expression patterns of miR-221 and its target Caspase-3 in different cancer cell lines. Mol Biol Rep. 2014 Sep;41(9):5877-81.

111. Wu JH, Yao YL, Gu T, Wang ZY, Pu XY, Sun WW et al. MiR-421 regulates apoptosis of BGC-823 gastric cancer cells by targeting caspase-3. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(13):5463-8.

112. Chiyomaru T, Yamamura S, Fukuhara S, Hidaka H, Majid S, Saini S et al. Genistein up-regulates tumor suppressor microRNA-574-3p in prostate cancer. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58929.

113. Fan Y, Yin S, Hao Y, Yang J, Zhang H, Sun C et al. miR-19b promotes tumor growth and metastasis via targeting TP53. RNA. 2014 Jun;20(6):765-72.

114. Gao F, Wang W. MicroRNA-96 promotes the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and targets tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 1, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and FOXO3a. Mol Med Rep. 2015 Feb;11(2):1200-6.

115. Bucur O, Stancu AL, Muraru MS, Melet A, Petrescu SM, Khosravi-Far R. PLK1 is a binding partner and a negative regulator of FOXO3 tumor suppressor. Discoveries  2014, Apr-Jun; 2(2): e16. DOI: 10.15190/d.2014.8

116. Wang F, Lv P, Liu X, Zhu M, Qiu X. microRNA-214 enhances the invasion ability of breast cancer cells by targeting p53. Int J Mol Med. 2015 May;35(5):1395-402.

117. Xu XH, Li DW, Feng H, Chen HM, Song YQ. MiR-300 regulate the malignancy of breast cancer by targeting p53. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 May 15;8(5):6957-66.

News & Events Latest news from Discoveries

  • 2022, April| AWARDS!

    2022 Discoveries Award winning articles!

    - Kinal Bhatt et al. 2021 (Larking Health System, FL, USA); Bhatt K, Agolli A, Patel MH, et al. High mortality co-infections of COVID-19 patients: mucormycosis and other fungal infections. Discoveries. 2021;9(1):e126. 
    27 citations in the past 1 year - $1000 prize

    - Hasnain Jan et al. 2020 (Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan); Jan H, Faisal S, Khan A, et al. COVID-19: Review of Epidemiology and Potential Treatments Against 2019 Novel Coronavirus. Discoveries. 2020;8(2):e108. 
    23 citations in the past 2 years - $400 prize

    Congratulations! Prizes will be received by the awardees in July 2022!

  • 2021, July| 2021, Jul-September

    Due to the high volume of the submitted articles, both Discoveries and Discoveries Reports are experiencing processing and publication delays during the months of July-September 2021. We will get back to the normal processing and publication times starting in October 2021. Note that our editorial and administrativ work is fully funded by our publishing house at this time and we are striving to KEEP THE NO FEE/NO CHARGE strategy in place as long as possible. 

  • 2021, January| AWARDS!

    2022 DISCOVERIES AWARDS! Discoveries will offer $1000 and $400 awards in early 2022, for the most cited (2021 ISI Citations) and visible articles published in 2018-2021.

  • 2020, November| Follow us on Twitter!

    You can now follow the latest Discoveries news and updates on Twitter! (@DiscoveriesNews) 

  • 2020, August| For Authors!

    Due to a high volume of article submissions, our peer-review process takes more than usual. The pre-screening decision is released in 1-2 days, while the peer-review process lasts between 10 and 20 days.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    WE DO NOT TOLERATE ANY MISCONDUCT! Please be aware that we are testing all received articles with specialized software for PLAGIARISM and WE WILL TAKE MEASURES if your article is already published or in consideration for publication by other journals! This may result in serious professional consequences for the authors. The latest striking case is the following article which is already published and was re-submitted here.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    We are happy to let you know that all articles published in Discoveries are now included in PubMedCentral (PMC). New accepted articles will be included in PMC and PubMed within 1-2 weeks after their publication.

  • 2020, January | For Authors!

    Starting in January 2020, Discoveries will also consider articles submitted by Discoveries' Editorial Board members. However, only a small number of such articles (maximum 4 articles/year) will be considered for publication after the peer-review process, and the authors who are also our editors will be clearly disclosed on our website.  

  • 2019, September | Indexed by PMC

    Discoveries is now indexed by PubMedCentral and Pubmed. The agreement with US National Library of Medicine was signed on September 10, 2019. Our next step is ISI Web of Science indexing. NOTE: previously published articles will be included on PubMed in early 2020.

  • 2019, September | PubMed inclusion!

    We are happy to let you know that Discoveries successfuly passed the last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion!

  • 2019, July | PubMed inclusion News!

    We are happy to receive positive comments from PMC/NLM-NIH regarding Discoveries' last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion. We will let you know once whole indexing process is completed. 

  • 2019| Sharing and Distribution!

    All articles published in Discoveries are Open Access articles distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and it is not used for commercial purposes.

  • 2018-2019 | For Authors!

    From now on and for at least 1 year, we will only accept articles from authors that are NOT members of Discoveries' Editorial Board. All articles submitted by our editors will be immediately rejected until further notice (one accepted article was already rejected). 

  • 2018 | PubMed inclusion News!

    Discoveries successfully passed the Scientific Quality Review by NLM-NIH for PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing. This is the first and the most important step towards PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing! The second (last) step is the Technical Review.

  • 2016, April | Faster Peer-Review

    Starting on April 13th 2016, all articles selected for a peer-review will receive the post peer-review decision within ~10 days. The initial pre-screening time will remain the same (48h from the submission of the manuscript). This decision will significantly accelerate the publication, with no effect on the quality of the peer-review process.

  • 2016, February | Manuscript submission

    Discoveries is commited to excellence, quality and high editorial standards. We are receiving an increasing number of manuscripts for which the identity of the authors/corresponding author can't be verified. Please NOTE that ALL these articles were and will be immediately REJECTED. Indicating an institutional email address is the easiest way to overcome this problem! Moreover, we do not accept any pressure on our editorial board to accept a manuscript. This results in a prompt rejection of the article.

    Editorial Policies
  • 2016, January | Main Objective

    After reaching all proposed milestones until now (including being indexed by Google Scholar in 2014), Discoveries' next Aim is PubMed indexing of all its articles (already published and upcoming). There will be no charge for the submission or publication of articles before Discoveries is indexed.

  • 2015, August | Discoveries - on PubMed

    We are happy to announce that our first Discoveries articles were included in PMC and PubMed. More articles (submitted by NIH funded authors) are now processed for being included.

    Discoveries articles now on PubMed
  • 2015, April | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES published the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "INFLAMMATION BETWEEN DEFENSE AND DISEASE: Impact on Tissue Repair and Chronic Sickness".

    Special Issue on "Inflammation"
  • 2015 | Ischemia Collection

    DISCOVERIES launched a call for papers for a Collection of Articles with focus on "ISCHEMIA". If you are interested to submit a manuscript, please contact us at info@discoveriesjournals.org

  • 2014, September | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES just publish the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "CELL SECRETION & MEMBRANE FUSION" in September 2014. Initially scheduled for publication between October 2014-March 2015, this issue was successfully published earlier than scheduled. 

    Special Issue
  • 2014, April | Indexed by Google Scholar

    All our published articles are now indexed by Google Scholar! First citations to Discoveries articles are included! Search for the article's title (recommended) or the authors:

    Google Scholar Search
  • 2014 | DISCOVERIES

    DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) are now assigned to all our published manuscripts in Discoveries. DOI uniquely identifies an article and is provided by CrossRef.

  • 2013, July | Manuscript Submission

    Submit your manuscript FREE, FAST and EASY ! (in less than 1 minute)! There are NO fees for the manuscript submission or publishing of the accepted manuscripts.
    read more

  • 2013, July | DISCOVERIES

    We are now ACCEPTING MANUSCRIPTS for publishing in DISCOVERIES. We aim publishing a small number of high impact experimental articles & reviews (around 40/year) to maintain a high impact factor. Domains of interest: all areas related to Medicine, Biology and Chemistry ...

    read more
Member Login
Free Registration Click here to sign up
Copyright © 2013 Applied Systems. All Rights Reserved.