Existing users Log In New users Sign up

Self-assembly of Deinococcus radiodurans bacteria

DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232), 2017, January-March issue


Bernadotte A, Semenova V, Musial VAM, Kasprzykowska A, Zubarev RA. Self-assembly of Deinococcus radiodurans supports nanocell scenario of life origin. Discoveries 2017, Jan-Mar; 5(1): e72 DOI: 10.15190/d.2017.2

Submitted: March 27th, 2017; Accepted: March 30th, 2017; Published: May 8th, 2017;

 GO BACK to 2017, January-March issue


Self-assembly of Deinococcus radiodurans supports nanocell scenario of life origin

Alexandra Bernadotte (1, 3), Valeriya Semenova (1), Vitor A. M. Musial (1), Anna Kasprzykowska (1), Roman A. Zubarev (1,2,*)

(1) Division of Physiological Chemistry I, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Scheeles väg 2, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden

(2) SciLifeLab, Stockholm, Sweden

(3) Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1-2, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation.

*Correspondence to: Roman A. Zubarev, PhD, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Scheeles väg 2, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden; Phone: +46 8 524 87594; E-mail: roman.zubarev@ki.se;


In many origin-of-life scenarios, first a kit of elements and simple compounds emerges, then a primitive membrane and then a nanocell with a minimal genome is self-assembled, which then proceeds to multiply by copying itself while mutating. Testing this scenario, we selected Deinococcus Radiodurans known for its exceptional self-repair properties as a model system, separated its bacterial lysis into DNA, RNA and protein fractions, while lipids were used for liposome formation. The fractions were sealed in glass tubes individually and in combinations and stored for three weeks. Upon seeding on Petri dishes, the fractions containing liposomes together with nucleic acid and/or proteins gave in total 19 colonies of Deinococcus radiodurans (confirmed by proteomics), while liposome-free fractions as well as liposome-only fractions gave no colonies. The self-assembly of viable cells from essentially dead mixtures validates the lyposome-based origin-of-life scenario.

Access full text of the manuscript here:   Suppl. Information (pdf)


1. Miller, S. L. A Production of amino acids under possible primitive Earth conditions. Science 117, 528–529 (1953). 

2. Johnson, A. P. et al. The Miller volcanic spark discharge experiment. Science 322, 92093 (2008).

3. Xie, X. et al. Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth. Sci. Rep. 28, 1–8 (2015).

4. Corchero, J. L. & Cedano, J. Self-assembling, protein-based intracellular bacterial organelles: emerging vehicles for encapsulating, targeting and delivering therapeutical cargoes. Microb. Cell Fact. 10, 92 (2011).

5. Menon, B. B., Dou, Z., Heinhorst, S., Shively, J. M. & Cannon, G. C. Halothiobacillus neapolitanus carboxysomes sequester heterologous and chimeric Rubisco species. PLoS One 3, (2008).

6. Luigi Luisi, P., Walde, P. & Oberholzer, T. Lipid vesicles as possible intermediates in the origin of life. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 4, 33–39 (1999).

7. Shapiro, R. Origins: A Skeptic’s Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth. Bantam New Age (1987).

8. Cao, Z., Mueller, C. W. & Julin, D. A. Analysis of the recJ gene and protein from Deinococcus radiodurans. DNA Repair 9, 66–75 (2010).

9. Moseley, B. E. & Setlow, J. K. Transformation in Micrococcus radiodurans and the ultraviolet sensitivity of its transforming DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 61, 176–83 (1968).

10. Folch, J., Lees, M. & Sloane Stanly, G. H. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497–509 (1953).

11. Gidden, J., Denson, J., Liyanage, R., Ivey, D. M. & Lay, J. O. Lipid compositions in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis during growth as determined by MALDI-TOF and TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 283, 178–184 (2010).

12. Anderson, A., Nordan, H., Cain, R., Parrish, G. & Duggan, D. Studies on a radio-resistant micrococcus. I. Isolation, morphology, cultural characteristics, and resistance to γ radiation. Food Technol. 10, 575–577 (1956).

13. Szoka, F. & Papahadjoppulos, D. Procedure for preparation of liposomes with large internal aqueous space and high capture by reverse-phase evaporation biochemistry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 75, 4194–4198 (1978).

14. Dua, J. S., Rana, A. C. & Bhandari, A. K. Liposome: Methods of preparation and applications. Int. J. Pharm. Stud. Res. 3, 2229–4619 (2012).

15. Cortesi, R. et al. Preparation of liposomes by reverse-phase evaporation using alternative organic solvents. J. Microencapsul. 16, 251–6 (1999).

16. Lapidot, M. & Loyter, A. Fusion-mediated microinjection of liposome-enclosed DNA into cultured cells with the aid of influenza virus glycoproteins. Exp. Cell Res. 189, 241–246 (1990).

17. Kasetvatin, C., Rujivipat, S. & Tiyaboonchai, W. Combination of elastic liposomes and low frequency ultrasound for skin permeation enhancement of hyaluronic acid. Colloids Surf. B. Biointerfaces 135, 458–464 (2015).

18. Lyutvinskiy, Y., Yang, H., Rutishauser, D. & Zubarev, R. A. In silico instrumental response correction improves precision of label-free proteomics and accuracy of proteomics-based predictive models. Mol. Cell Proteomics, 12, 2324-2331 (2013).

News & Events Latest news from Discoveries

  • 2021, January| 2021 AWARDS!

    2021 DISCOVERIES AWARDS! Discoveries will offer a $1000 award and at least five $400 awards in Jan 2022, for the most cited (2021 ISI Citations) and visible (Altmetric Score) articles published in 2018-2021.

  • 2020, November| Follow us on Twitter!

    You can now follow the latest Discoveries news and updates on Twitter! (@DiscoveriesNews) 

  • 2020, August| For Authors!

    Due to a high volume of article submissions, our peer-review process takes more than usual. The pre-screening decision is released in 1-2 days, while the peer-review process lasts between 10 and 20 days.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    WE DO NOT TOLERATE ANY MISCONDUCT! Please be aware that we are testing all received articles with specialized software for PLAGIARISM and WE WILL TAKE MEASURES if your article is already published or in consideration for publication by other journals! This may result in serious professional consequences for the authors. The latest striking case is the following article which is already published and was re-submitted here.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    We are happy to let you know that all articles published in Discoveries are now included in PubMedCentral (PMC). New accepted articles will be included in PMC and PubMed within 1-2 weeks after their publication.

  • 2020, January | For Authors!

    Starting in January 2020, Discoveries will also consider articles submitted by Discoveries' Editorial Board members. However, only a small number of such articles (maximum 4 articles/year) will be considered for publication after the peer-review process, and the authors who are also our editors will be clearly disclosed.  

  • 2019, September | Indexed by PMC

    Discoveries is now indexed by PubMedCentral and Pubmed. The agreement with US National Library of Medicine was signed on September 10, 2019. Our next step is ISI Web of Science indexing. NOTE: previously published articles will be included on PubMed in early 2020.

  • 2019, September | PubMed inclusion!

    We are happy to let you know that Discoveries successfuly passed the last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion!

  • 2019, July | PubMed inclusion News!

    We are happy to receive positive comments from PMC/NLM-NIH regarding Discoveries' last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion. We will let you know once whole indexing process is completed. 

  • 2019| Sharing and Distribution!

    All articles published in Discoveries are Open Access articles distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and it is not used for commercial purposes.

  • 2018-2019 | For Authors!

    From now on and for at least 1 year, we will only accept articles from authors that are NOT members of Discoveries' Editorial Board. All articles submitted by our editors will be immediately rejected until further notice (one accepted article was already rejected). 

  • 2018 | PubMed inclusion News!

    Discoveries successfully passed the Scientific Quality Review by NLM-NIH for PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing. This is the first and the most important step towards PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing! The second (last) step is the Technical Review.

  • 2016, April | Faster Peer-Review

    Starting on April 13th 2016, all articles selected for a peer-review will receive the post peer-review decision within ~10 days. The initial pre-screening time will remain the same (48h from the submission of the manuscript). This decision will significantly accelerate the publication, with no effect on the quality of the peer-review process.

  • 2016, February | Manuscript submission

    Discoveries is commited to excellence, quality and high editorial standards. We are receiving an increasing number of manuscripts for which the identity of the authors/corresponding author can't be verified. Please NOTE that ALL these articles were and will be immediately REJECTED. Indicating an institutional email address is the easiest way to overcome this problem! Moreover, we do not accept any pressure on our editorial board to accept a manuscript. This results in a prompt rejection of the article.

    Editorial Policies
  • 2016, January | Main Objective

    After reaching all proposed milestones until now (including being indexed by Google Scholar in 2014), Discoveries' next Aim is PubMed indexing of all its articles (already published and upcoming). There will be no charge for the submission or publication of articles before Discoveries is indexed.

  • 2015, August | Discoveries - on PubMed

    We are happy to announce that our first Discoveries articles were included in PMC and PubMed. More articles (submitted by NIH funded authors) are now processed for being included.

    Discoveries articles now on PubMed
  • 2015, April | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES published the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "INFLAMMATION BETWEEN DEFENSE AND DISEASE: Impact on Tissue Repair and Chronic Sickness".

    Special Issue on "Inflammation"
  • 2015 | Ischemia Collection

    DISCOVERIES launched a call for papers for a Collection of Articles with focus on "ISCHEMIA". If you are interested to submit a manuscript, please contact us at info@discoveriesjournals.org

  • 2014, September | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES just publish the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "CELL SECRETION & MEMBRANE FUSION" in September 2014. Initially scheduled for publication between October 2014-March 2015, this issue was successfully published earlier than scheduled. 

    Special Issue
  • 2014, April | Indexed by Google Scholar

    All our published articles are now indexed by Google Scholar! First citations to Discoveries articles are included! Search for the article's title (recommended) or the authors:

    Google Scholar Search
  • 2014 | DISCOVERIES

    DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) are now assigned to all our published manuscripts in Discoveries. DOI uniquely identifies an article and is provided by CrossRef.

  • 2013, July | Manuscript Submission

    Submit your manuscript FREE, FAST and EASY ! (in less than 1 minute)! There are NO fees for the manuscript submission or publishing of the accepted manuscripts.
    read more

  • 2013, July | DISCOVERIES

    We are now ACCEPTING MANUSCRIPTS for publishing in DISCOVERIES. We aim publishing a small number of high impact experimental articles & reviews (around 40/year) to maintain a high impact factor. Domains of interest: all areas related to Medicine, Biology and Chemistry ...

    read more
Member Login
Free Registration Click here to sign up
Copyright © 2013 Applied Systems. All Rights Reserved.