Existing users Log In New users Sign up

GOLDIC triggers heart failure after MI

DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232), 2017, October-December issue


Cordes F, Curaj A, Simsekyilmaz S, Schneider U, Liehn EA. Anti-inflammatory Gold-Induced Autologous Cytokines treatment triggers heart failure after myocardial infarction. Discoveries 2017, 5(4): e80. DOI: 10.15190/d.2017.10

Submitted: December 13th, 2017; Revised: December 31st, 2017; Accepted: December 31st, 2017; Published: December 31st, 2017;

 GO BACK to 2017, October-December issue


Anti-inflammatory Gold-Induced Autologous Cytokines treatment triggers heart failure after myocardial infarction

Angus Franziska Cordes (1), Adelina Curaj (1, 2), Sakine Simsekyilmaz (1, 3), Ulrich Schneider (4), Elisa A. Liehn (1, 2, 5, *)

(1) Institute for Molecular Cardiovascular Research (IMCAR), RWTH Aachen University, Germany; 

(2) Victor Babes National Institute of Pathology, Bucharest, Romania; 

(3) Biochemistry Institute, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany; 

(4) Arthro Nova Clinic, Ringsee, Germany; 

(5) Human Genetics Laboratory, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Craiova, Romania;

*Corresponding author: Elisa A. Liehn MD, PhD, Institute for Molecular Cardiovascular Research (IMCAR), University Hospital Aachen, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany; Tel.: +49-241-80 35983; Email: eliehn @ukaachen.de


Background: Gold-induced autologous cytokine (GOLDIC) treatment is usually used in the therapy of the inflammatory musculoskeletal disorders (e.g. osteoarthritis in humans) and is able to modulate the inflammatory reaction. Moreover, governed by chemokines and cytokines, the complex inflammatory response after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), the main cause of death worldwide, plays an important role in the preservation of heart function. Therefore, we hypothetized that GOLDIC could also have an important role in ventricular remodeling after MI.

Methods: Myocardial infarction was induced in mice and GOLDIC-enriched serum was injected directly in the infarcted tissue. Four weeks later, the function of the heart, as well as the infarction size and the scar composition was analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with Prism 6.1 software (GraphPad), using 1-way ANOVA, followed by Newman-Keuls post-hoc-test, as indicated. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. 

Results: Four weeks after MI, GOLDIC-treated mice show significantly decreased heart function and higher infarction size compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry reveals a significantly increased number of myofibroblasts, correlating with higher collagen content in the infarcted area. Despite impaired heart function, angiogenesis in the GOLDIC-treated group is improved compared with the control, due to the increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the GOLDIC serum. 

Conclusions: In conclusion, GOLDIC treatment impaires the ventricular remodeling, worsening the heart function. Therefore, these systemic effects should be taken into account when new therapies are designed for the musculoskeletal disorders.

Access full text of the manuscript here: 


1.  Liehn EA, Postea O, Curaj A, Marx N. Repair after myocardial infarction, between fantasy and reality: the role of chemokines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58: 2357-2362.

2. Liehn EA, Cabrera-Fuentes HA. Inflammation between defense and disease: impact on tissue repair and chronic sickness. Discoveries. 2015; 3: e42.

3. Burmester GR. Molecular mechanisms of action of gold in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis--an update. Z Rheumatol. 2001; 60: 167-173.

4. Chen H, Dorrigan A, Saad S, Hare DJ, Cortie MB, et al. In vivo study of spherical gold nanoparticles: inflammatory effects and distribution in mice. PLoS One. 2013; 8: e58208.

5. Havarinasab S, Pollard KM, Hultman P. Gold- and silver-induced murine autoimmunity--requirement for cytokines and CD28 in murine heavy metal-induced autoimmunity. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009; 155: 567-576.

6. Schneider U. International Patent Application 2011; No. PCT/DE2011/001322.

7. Li GH, Arora PD, Chen Y, McCulloch CA, Liu P. Multifunctional roles of gelsolin in health and diseases. Med Res Rev. 2012; 32: 999-1025.

8. Schneider U, Veith G. First Results on the Outcome of Gold-induced, Autologous-conditioned Serum (GOLDIC) in the Treatment of Different Lameness-associated Equine Diseases. J Cell Sci Ther. 2013; 5: 1.

9. Curaj A, Simsekyilmaz S, Staudt M, Liehn E. Minimal invasive surgical procedure of inducing myocardial infarction in mice. J Vis Exp. 2015; e52197.

10.  Curaj A, Staudt M, Fatu R, Kraaijeveld AO, Jankowski J, et al. Blockade of CCR3 retains the neutrophils, preserving their survival during healing after myocardial infarction. Discoveries 2015; 3: e45.

11.  Horckmans M, Ring L, Duchene J, Santovito D, Schloss MJ, et al. Neutrophils orchestrate post-myocardial infarction healing by polarizing macrophages towards a reparative phenotype. Eur Heart J. 2016; doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehw002. 

12. Oral H, Kanzler I, Tuchscheerer N, Curaj A, Simsekyilmaz S, et al. CXC chemokine KC fails to induce neutrophil infiltration and neoangiogenesis in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013; 60: 1-7.

13. Giugliano GR, Giugliano RP, Gibson CM, Kuntz RE. Meta-analysis of corticosteroid treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2003; 91: 1055-1059.

14. Silverman HS, Pfeifer MP. Relation between use of anti-inflammatory agents and left ventricular free wall rupture during acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1987; 59: 363-364.

15.  Projahn D, Simsekyilmaz S, Singh S, Kanzler I, Kramp BK, et al. Controlled intramyocardial release of engineered chemokines by biodegradable hydrogels as a treatment approach of myocardial infarction. J Cell Mol Med. 2014; 18: 790-800.

16. Schuh A, Konschalla S, Kroh A, Schober A, Marx N, et al. Effect of SDF-1 alpha on endogenous mobilized and transplanted stem cells in regeneration after myocardial infarction. Curr Pharm Des. 2014; 20: 1964-1970.

17. Schuh A, Kroh A, Konschalla S, Liehn EA, Sobota RM, et al. Myocardial regeneration by transplantation of modified endothelial progenitor cells expressing SDF-1 in a rat model. J Cell Mol Med. 2012; 16: 2311-2320.

18. Schuh A, Liehn EA, Sasse A, Hristov M, Sobota R, et al. Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells improves neovascularization and left ventricular function after myocardial infarction in a rat model. Basic Res Cardiol. 2008; 103: 69-77.

19. Schuh A, Butzbach B, Curaj A, Simsekyilmaz S, Bucur O, et al. Novel insights into the mechanism of cell-based therapy after chronic myocardial infarction. Discoveries. 2014; 2.

News & Events Latest news from Discoveries

  • 2021, January| 2021 AWARDS!

    2021 DISCOVERIES AWARDS! Discoveries will offer a $1000 award and at least five $400 awards in Jan 2022, for the most cited (2021 ISI Citations) and visible (Altmetric Score) articles published in 2018-2021.

  • 2020, November| Follow us on Twitter!

    You can now follow the latest Discoveries news and updates on Twitter! (@DiscoveriesNews) 

  • 2020, August| For Authors!

    Due to a high volume of article submissions, our peer-review process takes more than usual. The pre-screening decision is released in 1-2 days, while the peer-review process lasts between 10 and 20 days.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    WE DO NOT TOLERATE ANY MISCONDUCT! Please be aware that we are testing all received articles with specialized software for PLAGIARISM and WE WILL TAKE MEASURES if your article is already published or in consideration for publication by other journals! This may result in serious professional consequences for the authors. The latest striking case is the following article which is already published and was re-submitted here.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    We are happy to let you know that all articles published in Discoveries are now included in PubMedCentral (PMC). New accepted articles will be included in PMC and PubMed within 1-2 weeks after their publication.

  • 2020, January | For Authors!

    Starting in January 2020, Discoveries will also consider articles submitted by Discoveries' Editorial Board members. However, only a small number of such articles (maximum 4 articles/year) will be considered for publication after the peer-review process, and the authors who are also our editors will be clearly disclosed.  

  • 2019, September | Indexed by PMC

    Discoveries is now indexed by PubMedCentral and Pubmed. The agreement with US National Library of Medicine was signed on September 10, 2019. Our next step is ISI Web of Science indexing. NOTE: previously published articles will be included on PubMed in early 2020.

  • 2019, September | PubMed inclusion!

    We are happy to let you know that Discoveries successfuly passed the last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion!

  • 2019, July | PubMed inclusion News!

    We are happy to receive positive comments from PMC/NLM-NIH regarding Discoveries' last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion. We will let you know once whole indexing process is completed. 

  • 2019| Sharing and Distribution!

    All articles published in Discoveries are Open Access articles distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and it is not used for commercial purposes.

  • 2018-2019 | For Authors!

    From now on and for at least 1 year, we will only accept articles from authors that are NOT members of Discoveries' Editorial Board. All articles submitted by our editors will be immediately rejected until further notice (one accepted article was already rejected). 

  • 2018 | PubMed inclusion News!

    Discoveries successfully passed the Scientific Quality Review by NLM-NIH for PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing. This is the first and the most important step towards PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing! The second (last) step is the Technical Review.

  • 2016, April | Faster Peer-Review

    Starting on April 13th 2016, all articles selected for a peer-review will receive the post peer-review decision within ~10 days. The initial pre-screening time will remain the same (48h from the submission of the manuscript). This decision will significantly accelerate the publication, with no effect on the quality of the peer-review process.

  • 2016, February | Manuscript submission

    Discoveries is commited to excellence, quality and high editorial standards. We are receiving an increasing number of manuscripts for which the identity of the authors/corresponding author can't be verified. Please NOTE that ALL these articles were and will be immediately REJECTED. Indicating an institutional email address is the easiest way to overcome this problem! Moreover, we do not accept any pressure on our editorial board to accept a manuscript. This results in a prompt rejection of the article.

    Editorial Policies
  • 2016, January | Main Objective

    After reaching all proposed milestones until now (including being indexed by Google Scholar in 2014), Discoveries' next Aim is PubMed indexing of all its articles (already published and upcoming). There will be no charge for the submission or publication of articles before Discoveries is indexed.

  • 2015, August | Discoveries - on PubMed

    We are happy to announce that our first Discoveries articles were included in PMC and PubMed. More articles (submitted by NIH funded authors) are now processed for being included.

    Discoveries articles now on PubMed
  • 2015, April | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES published the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "INFLAMMATION BETWEEN DEFENSE AND DISEASE: Impact on Tissue Repair and Chronic Sickness".

    Special Issue on "Inflammation"
  • 2015 | Ischemia Collection

    DISCOVERIES launched a call for papers for a Collection of Articles with focus on "ISCHEMIA". If you are interested to submit a manuscript, please contact us at info@discoveriesjournals.org

  • 2014, September | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES just publish the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "CELL SECRETION & MEMBRANE FUSION" in September 2014. Initially scheduled for publication between October 2014-March 2015, this issue was successfully published earlier than scheduled. 

    Special Issue
  • 2014, April | Indexed by Google Scholar

    All our published articles are now indexed by Google Scholar! First citations to Discoveries articles are included! Search for the article's title (recommended) or the authors:

    Google Scholar Search
  • 2014 | DISCOVERIES

    DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) are now assigned to all our published manuscripts in Discoveries. DOI uniquely identifies an article and is provided by CrossRef.

  • 2013, July | Manuscript Submission

    Submit your manuscript FREE, FAST and EASY ! (in less than 1 minute)! There are NO fees for the manuscript submission or publishing of the accepted manuscripts.
    read more

  • 2013, July | DISCOVERIES

    We are now ACCEPTING MANUSCRIPTS for publishing in DISCOVERIES. We aim publishing a small number of high impact experimental articles & reviews (around 40/year) to maintain a high impact factor. Domains of interest: all areas related to Medicine, Biology and Chemistry ...

    read more
Member Login
Free Registration Click here to sign up
Copyright © 2013 Applied Systems. All Rights Reserved.