Existing users Log In New users Sign up

Biomimetic Scaffolds for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232), 2019, January-March issue


Mulbauer GD, Matthew HWT. Biomimetic Scaffolds for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration. Discoveries 2019, 7(1); e90. DOI:10.15190/d.2019.3

Pre-submission: December 4th, 2018; Submission: March 29th, 2019; Revised: March 31st, 2019; Accepted: March 31st, 2019; Online: March 31st, 2019; Published in its final version: April 23rd, 2019. 

 GO BACK to 2019, January-March issue


Biomimetic Scaffolds for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

Greta D. Mulbauer *, Howard W.T. Matthew *

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA;

*Corresponding authors: Howard W.T. Matthew, PhD and Greta D. Mulbauer, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Detroit, MI 48202, United States. Emails: hmatthew@wayne.edu and greta.mulbauer@wayne.edu respectively;


Skeletal muscle tissue has inherent capacity for regeneration in response to minor injuries. However, in the case of severe trauma, tumor ablations, or in congenital muscle defects, these myopathies can cause irreversible loss of muscle mass and function, a condition referred to as volumetric muscle loss (VML). The natural muscle repair mechanisms are overwhelmed, prompting the search for new muscle regenerative strategies, such as using biomaterials that can provide regenerative signals to either transplanted or host muscle cells. Recent studies involve the use of suitable biomaterials which may be utilized as a template to guide tissue reorganization and ultimately provide optimum micro-environmental conditions to cells. These strategies range from approaches that utilize biomaterials alone to those that combine materials with exogenous growth factors, and ex vivo cultured cells. A number of scaffold materials have been used in the development of grafts to treat VML. In this brief review, we outline the natural skeletal regeneration process, available treatments used in the clinic for muscle injury and promising tissue bioengineering and regenerative approaches for muscle loss treatment.

Access full text of the manuscript here: 


1. Grasman JM, Zayas MJ, Page RL, Pins GD. Biomimetic scaffolds for regeneration of volumetric muscle loss in skeletal muscle injuries. Acta Biomater. 2015 Oct;25:2-15.
2. Yin H, Price F, Rudnicki MA. Satellite cells and the muscle stem cell niche. Physiol Rev. 2013 Jan;93(1):23-67.
3. Cittadella Vigodarzere G, Mantero S. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering: strategies for volumetric constructs. Front Physiol. 2014 Sep 22;5:362.
4. Patel K, Dunn AJ, Talovic M, Haas G, Marcinczyk M, Elmashhady H et al. Aligned nanofibers of decellularized muscle ECM support myogenic activity in primary satellite cells in vitro. Biomed Mater. 2019 Feb 27.
5. Liu J, Saul D, Böker KO, Ernst J, Lehman W, Schilling AF. Current Methods for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Repair and Regeneration. Biomed Res Int. 2018 Apr 16;2018:1984879.
6. Corona BT, Rivera JC, Owens JG, Wenke JC, Rathbone CR. Volumetric muscle loss leads to permanent disability following extremity trauma. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2015;52(7):785-92.
7. Pollot BE, Corona BT. Volumetric Muscle Loss. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1460:19-31.
8. Pansarasa O, Rossi D, Berardinelli A, Cereda C. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and skeletal muscle: an update. Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Apr;49(2):984-90
9. Jani-Acsadi A, Ounpuu S, Pierz K, Acsadi G. Pediatric Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2015 Jun;62(3):767-86.
10. Saure C, Caminiti C, Weglinski J, de Castro Perez F, Monges S. Energy expenditure, body composition, and prevalence of metabolic disorders in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2018 Apr - Jun;12(2):81-85.
11. Kalyani RR, Corriere M, Ferrucci L. Age-related and disease-related muscle loss: the effect of diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Oct;2(10):819-29.
12. West SL, Lok CE, Jamal SA. Fracture Risk Assessment in Chronic Kidney Disease, Prospective Testing Under Real World Environments (FRACTURE): a prospective study. BMC Nephrol. 2010 Aug 20;11:17.
13. Järvinen TA, Järvinen TL, Kääriäinen M, Kalimo H, Järvinen M. Muscle injuries: biology and treatment. Am J Sports Med. 2005 May;33(5):745-64.
14. Grogan BF, Hsu JR; Skeletal Trauma Research Consortium. Volumetric muscle loss. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011;19 Suppl 1:S35-7.
15. Bianchi B, Copelli C, Ferrari S, Ferri A, Sesenna E. Free flaps: outcomes and complications in head and neck reconstructions. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009 Dec;37(8):438-42.
16. Turner NJ, Badylak SF. Regeneration of skeletal muscle. Cell Tissue Res. 2012 Mar;347(3):759-74.
17. Bodine-Fowler S. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury: an overview. J Voice. 1994 Mar;8(1):53-62.
18. Kimura N, Hirata S, Miyasaka N, Kawahata K, Kohsaka H. Injury and subsequent regeneration of muscles for activation of local innate immunity to facilitate the development and relapse of autoimmune myositis in C57BL/6 mice. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Apr;67(4):1107-16.
19. Tidball JG, Villalta SA. Regulatory interactions between muscle and the immune system during muscle regeneration. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 May;298(5):R1173-87. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00735.2009.
20. Tidball JG. Mechanisms of muscle injury, repair, and regeneration. Compr Physiol. 2011 Oct;1(4):2029-62.
21. Deng B, Wehling-Henricks M, Villalta SA, Wang Y, Tidball JG. IL-10 triggers changes in macrophage phenotype that promote muscle growth and regeneration. J Immunol. 2012 Oct 1;189(7):3669-80.
22. Villalta SA, Rinaldi C, Deng B, Liu G, Fedor B, Tidball JG. Interleukin-10 reduces the pathology of mdx muscular dystrophy by deactivating M1 macrophages and modulating macrophage phenotype. Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Feb 15;20(4):790-805.
23. IFN-γ promotes muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by suppressing M2 macrophage activation and inhibiting muscle cell proliferation. J Immunol. 2011 Nov 15;187(10):5419-28.
24. Pettersson F, Malker B. Invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix following diagnosis and treatment of in situ carcinoma. Record linkage study within a National Cancer Registry. Radiother Oncol. 1989 Oct;16(2):115-20.
25. Huard J, Li Y, Fu FH. Muscle injuries and repair: current trends in research. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002 May;84-A(5):822-32.
26. Hayashi S, Aso H, Watanabe K, Nara H, Rose MT, Ohwada S, Yamaguchi T. Sequence of IGF-I, IGF-II, and HGF expression in regenerating skeletal muscle. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004 Nov;122(5):427-34
27. Bianchi B, Copelli C, Ferrari S, Ferri A, Sesenna E. ree flaps: outcomes and complications in head and neck reconstructions. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009 Dec;37(8):438-42.
28. Whittington B.Understanding the 3 Phases of Muscle Healing; website accessed on March 25th, 2019
29. Eckardt A, Fokas K. Microsurgical reconstruction in the head and neck region: an 18-year experience with 500 consecutive cases. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2003 Aug;31(4):197-201.
30. Stevanovic MV, Cuéllar VG, Ghiassi A, Sharpe F. Single-stage Reconstruction of Elbow Flexion Associated with Massive Soft-Tissue Defect Using the Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Bipolar Rotational Transfer. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2016 Sep 28;4(9):e1066.
31. Barrera-Ochoa S, Collado-Delfa JM, Sallent A, Lluch A, Velez R. Free Neurovascular Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Transplantation for Reconstruction of Hip Abductors. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2017 Sep 26;5(9):e1498.
32. Maldonado AA, Kircher MF, Spinner RJ, Bishop AT, Shin AY. Free Functioning Gracilis Muscle Transfer With and Without Simultaneous Intercostal Nerve Transfer to Musculocutaneous Nerve for Restoration of Elbow Flexion After Traumatic Adult Brachial Pan-Plexus Injury. J Hand Surg Am. 2017 Apr;42(4):293.e1-293.e7.
33. Sue GR, Ho OH. Microsurgical Reconstruction of the Smile: A Critical Analysis of Outcomes. Ann Plast Surg. 2019 Mar 12.
34. Lin BY, Guo QF, Liu YY, Huang K, Zhang C, Shen LF. Transfer of gastrocnemius muscle flap for postoperative infection with patellar internal fixation]. Zhongguo Gu Shang. 2018 Oct 25;31(10):899-902.
35. Maxillary reconstruction using rectus femoris muscle flap and sagittal mandibular ramus/coronoid process graft pedicled with temporalis muscle. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2018 Sep 1;23(5):e619-e624.
36. Gregory TM, Heckmann RA, Francis RS. The effect of exercise on the presence of leukocytes, erythrocytes and collagen fibers in skeletal muscle after contusion. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1995 Feb;18(2):72-8.
37. Sundström-Rehal M, Tardif N, Rooyackers O. Can exercise and nutrition stimulate muscle protein gain in the ICU patient? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2019 Mar;22(2):146-151.
38. Brutsaert TD, Gavin TP, Fu Z, Breen EC, Tang K, Mathieu-Costello O, Wagner PD. Regional differences in expression of VEGF mRNA in rat gastrocnemius following 1 hr exercise or electrical stimulation. BMC Physiol. 2002 Jun 19;2:8.
39. Faria FE, Ferrari RJ, Distefano G, Ducatti AC, Soares KF, Montebelo MI, Minamoto VB. The onset and duration of mobilization affect the regeneration in the rat muscle. Histol Histopathol. 2008 May;23(5):565-71.
40. Chen Y, Sood S, Biada J, Roth R, Rabkin R. Increased workload fully activates the blunted IRS-1/PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in atrophied uremic muscle. Kidney Int. 2008 Apr;73(7):848-55.
41. Sicari BM, Rubin JP, Dearth CL, Wolf MT, Ambrosio F, Boninger M, et al. An acellular biologic scaffold promotes skeletal muscle formation in mice and humans with volumetric muscle loss. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Apr 30;6(234):234ra58.
42. Mase VJ Jr, Hsu JR, Wolf SE, Wenke JC, Baer DG, Owens J. Clinical application of an acellular biologic scaffold for surgical repair of a large, traumatic quadriceps femoris muscle defect. Orthopedics. 2010 Jul 13;33(7):511.
43. Dziki J, Badylak S, Yabroudi M, Sicari B, Ambrosio F, Stearns K et al. An acellular biologic scaffold treatment for volumetric muscle loss: results of a 13-patient cohort study. NPJ Regen Med. 2016 Jul 21;1:16008.
44. Qazi TH, Duda GN, Ort MJ, Perka C, Geissler S, Winkler T. Cell therapy to improve regeneration of skeletal muscle injuries. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2019 Mar 6.
45. Huard J, Roy R, Bouchard JP, Malouin F, Richards CL, Tremblay JP. Human myoblast transplantation between immunohistocompatible donors and recipients produces immune reactions. Transplant Proc. 1992 Dec;24(6):3049-51.
46. Sarveazad A, Newstead GL, Mirzaei R, Joghataei MT, Bakhtiari M, Babahajian A, Mahjoubi B. A new method for treating fecal incontinence by implanting stem cells derived from human adipose tissue: preliminary findings of a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017 Feb 21;8(1):40.
47. Peters KM, Dmochowski RR, Carr LK, Robert M, Kaufman MR, Sirls LT. Autologous muscle derived cells for treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. J Urol. 2014 Aug;192(2):469-76.
48. Winkler T, Perka C, von Roth P, Agres AN, Plage H, Preininger B. Immunomodulatory placental-expanded, mesenchymal stromal cells improve muscle function following hip arthroplasty. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018 Oct;9(5):880-897.
49. Takaoka Y, Ohta M, Ito A, Takamatsu K, Sugano A, Funakoshi K, et al. Electroacupuncture suppresses myostatin gene expression: cell proliferative reaction in mouse skeletal muscle. Physiol Genomics. 2007 Jul 18;30(2):102-10.
50. Su Z, Robinson A, Hu L, Klein JD, Hassounah F, Li M. Acupuncture plus Low-Frequency Electrical Stimulation (Acu-LFES) Attenuates Diabetic Myopathy by Enhancing Muscle Regeneration. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 31;10(7):e0134511
51. Beldjilali-Labro M, Garcia Garcia A, Farhat F, Bedoui F, Grosset JF, Dufresne M, Legallais C. Biomaterials in Tendon and Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: Current Trends and Challenges. Materials (Basel). 2018 Jun 29;11(7). pii: E1116.
52. Grefte S, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM, Torensma R, Von den Hoff JW. Skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Stem Cells Dev. 2007 Oct;16(5):857-68.
53. Chen S, Nakamoto T, Kawazoe N, Chen G. Engineering multi-layered skeletal muscle tissue by using 3D microgrooved collagen scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2015 Dec;73:23-31.
54. Chaudhari AA, Vig K, Baganizi DR, Sahu R, Dixit S, Dennis V et al. Future Prospects for Scaffolding Methods and Biomaterials in Skin Tissue Engineering: A Review. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Nov 25;17(12). pii: E1974.
55. Altomare L, Gadegaard N, Visai L, Tanzi MC, Farè S. Biodegradable microgrooved polymeric surfaces obtained by photolithography for skeletal muscle cell orientation and myotube development. Acta Biomater. 2010 Jun;6(6):1948-57.
56. Lam MT, Sim S, Zhu X, Takayama S. The effect of continuous wavy micropatterns on silicone substrates on the alignment of skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. Biomaterials. 2006 Aug;27(24):4340-7.
57. Wang L, Wu Y, Guo B, Ma PX. Nanofiber Yarn/Hydrogel Core-Shell Scaffolds Mimicking Native Skeletal Muscle Tissue for Guiding 3D Myoblast Alignment, Elongation, and Differentiation. ACS Nano. 2015 Sep 22;9(9):9167-79.
58. Mallick KK, Cox SC. Biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2013 Jan 1;5:341-60.
59. Sanes JR. The basement membrane/basal lamina of skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 11;278(15):12601-4.
60. Smoak MM, Han A, Watson E, Kishan A, Grande-Allen KJ, Cosgriff-Hernandez E, Mikos AG. Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Decellularized Muscle-derived Scaffolds. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2019 Mar 26.
61. Qiu X, Liu S, Zhang H, Zhu B, Su Y, Zheng C et al. Mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix scaffold promote muscle regeneration by synergistically regulating macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018 Apr 3;9(1):88.
62. Trevisan C, Maghin E, Dedja A, Caccin P, de Cesare N, Franzin C et al. Allogenic tissue-specific decellularized scaffolds promote long-term muscle innervation and functional recovery in a surgical diaphragmatic hernia model. Acta Biomater. 2019 Mar 6. pii: S1742-7061(19)30173-4.
63. Garg K, Ward CL, Rathbone CR, Corona BT. Transplantation of devitalized muscle scaffolds is insufficient for appreciable de novo muscle fiber regeneration after volumetric muscle loss injury. Cell Tissue Res. 2014 Dec;358(3):857-73.
64. Quarta M, Cromie M, Chacon R, Blonigan J, Garcia V, Akimenko I et al. Bioengineered constructs combined with exercise enhance stem cell-mediated treatment of volumetric muscle loss. Nat Commun. 2017 Jun 20;8:15613.
65. Kasukonis B, Kim J, Brown L, Jones J, Ahmadi S, Washington T, Wolchok J. Codelivery of Infusion Decellularized Skeletal Muscle with Minced Muscle Autografts Improved Recovery from Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury in a Rat Model. Tissue Eng Part A. 2016 Oct;22(19-20):1151-1163.
66. Bloise N, Berardi E, Gualandi C, Zaghi E, Gigli M, Duelen R. Ether-Oxygen Containing Electrospun Microfibrous and Sub-Microfibrous Scaffolds Based on Poly(butylene 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate) for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Oct 17;19(10). pii: E3212.
67. Pantelic MN, Larkin LM. Stem Cells for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2018 Oct;24(5):373-391.
68. Zhang M, Guo B. Electroactive 3D Scaffolds Based on Silk Fibroin and Water-Borne Polyaniline for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering. Macromol Biosci. 2017 Sep;17(9).
69. Pollot BE, Rathbone CR, Wenke JC, Guda T. Natural polymeric hydrogel evaluation for skeletal muscle tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2018 Feb;106(2):672-679.
70. Kim TH, Kwon CH, Lee C, An J, Phuong TT, Park SH. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles. Sci Rep. 2016 May 25;6:26687.
71. Rowley JA, Mooney DJ. Alginate type and RGD density control myoblast phenotype. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002 May;60(2):217-23.
72. Baysal K, Aroguz AZ, Adiguzel Z, Baysal BM. Chitosan/alginate crosslinked hydrogels: preparation, characterization and application for cell growth purposes. Int J Biol Macromol. 2013 Aug;59:342-8.
73. Wolf MT, Dearth CL, Sonnenberg SB, Loboa EG, Badylak SF. Naturally derived and synthetic scaffolds for skeletal muscle reconstruction. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2015 Apr;84:208-21.
74. O'Brien MP, Carnes ME, Page RL, Gaudette GR, Pins GD. Designing Biopolymer Microthreads for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Curr Stem Cell Rep. 2016 Jun;2(2):147-157.
75. Corona BT, Garg K, Ward CL, McDaniel JS, Walters TJ, Rathbone CR. Autologous minced muscle grafts: a tissue engineering therapy for the volumetric loss of skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013 Oct 1;305(7):C761-75. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00189.2013
76. Jana S, Levengood SK, Zhang M. Anisotropic Materials for Skeletal-Muscle-Tissue Engineering. Adv Mater. 2016 Dec;28(48):10588-10612.
77. Marcinczyk M, Dunn A, Haas G, Madsen J, Scheidt R, Patel K et al. The Effect of Laminin-111 Hydrogels on Muscle Regeneration in a Murine Model of Injury. Tissue Eng Part A. 2018 Dec 28.

78. Haas GJ, Dunn AJ, Marcinczyk M, Talovic M, Schwartz M, Scheidt R. Biomimetic sponges for regeneration of skeletal muscle following trauma. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2019 Jan;107(1):92-103.

79. Vossoughi A, Matthew HWT. Encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells in glycosaminoglycans-chitosan polyelectrolyte microcapsules using electrospraying technique: Investigating capsule morphology and cell viability. Bioeng Transl Med. 2018 Oct 1;3(3):265-274.

80. Feng H, Zheng T, Li M, Wu J, Ji H, Zhang J, Zhao W, Guo J. Droplet-based microfluidics systems in biomedical applications. Electrophoresis. 2019 Mar 20.

81. Tiruvannamalaiā€Annamalai R, Armant DR, Matthew HWT. A glycosaminoglycan based, modular tissue scaffold system for rapid assembly of perfusable, high cell density, engineered tissues. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):1–15. 

82. Annamalai RT, Matthew HWT. Transport Analysis of Engineered Liver Tissue Fabricated Using a Capsule-Based, Modular Approach. Ann Biomed Eng. 2019 May;47(5):1223-1236.

83. Hollis S, McClure P. Intramuscular Electrical Stimulation for Muscle Activation of the Tibialis Anterior After Surgical Repair: A Case Report. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017 Dec;47(12):965-969. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2017.7368.

84. Wall BT, Morton JP, van Loon LJ. Strategies to maintain skeletal muscle mass in the injured athlete: nutritional considerations and exercise mimetics. Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15(1):53-62.

85. Larkin-Kaiser KA, Christou E, Tillman M, George S, Borsa PA. Near-infrared light therapy to attenuate strength loss after strenuous resistance exercise. J Athl Train. 2015 Jan;50(1):45-50.

86. Martins F, Rennó AC, Oliveira Fd, Minatel NP, Bortolin JA, Quintana HT, Aveiro MC. Low-level laser therapy modulates musculoskeletal loss in a skin burn model in rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2015 Feb;30(2):94-9.

87. Garcia TA, Camargo RCT, Koike TE, Ozaki GAT, Castoldi RC, Camargo Filho JCS. Histological analysis of the association of low level laser therapy and platelet-rich plasma in regeneration of muscle injury in rats. Braz J Phys Ther. 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):425-433.

88. Takeuchi K, Hatade T, Wakamiya S, Fujita N, Arakawa T, Miki A. Heat stress promotes skeletal muscle regeneration after crush injury in rats. Acta Histochem. 2014 Mar;116(2):327-34.

89. Obi S, Nakajima T, Hasegawa T, Nakamura F, Sakuma M, Toyoda S, Tei C, Inoue T. Heat induces myogenic transcription factors of myoblast cells via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (Trpv1). FEBS Open Bio. 2018 Dec 3;9(1):101-113.

90. Borselli C, Storrie H, Benesch-Lee F, Shvartsman D, Cezar C, Lichtman JW et al. Functional muscle regeneration with combined delivery of angiogenesis and myogenesis factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 23;107(8):3287-92.

91. Wang L, Cao L, Shansky J, Wang Z, Mooney D, Vandenburgh H. Minimally invasive approach to the repair of injured skeletal muscle with a shape-memory scaffold. Mol Ther. 2014 Aug;22(8):1441-1449.

92. Stratos I, Graff J, Rotter R, Mittlmeier T, Vollmar B. Open blunt crush injury of different severity determines nature and extent of local tissue regeneration and repair. J Orthop Res. 2010 Jul;28(7):950-7.

93. Gilbert TW, Sellaro TL, Badylak SF. Decellularization of tissues and organs. Biomaterials. 2006 Jul;27(19):3675-83.

94. Bi H, Jin Y. Current progress of skin tissue engineering: Seed cells, bioscaffolds, and construction strategies. Burns Trauma. 2013 Sep 18;1(2):63-72

95. Nyame TT, Chiang HA, Leavitt T, Ozambela M, Orgill DP. Tissue-Engineered Skin Substitutes. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Dec;136(6):1379-88

96. Haro H, Kato T, Komori H, Osada M, Shinomiya K. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in herniated disc resorption. J Orthop Res. 2002 May;20(3):409-15.

97. Thomopoulos S, Kim HM, Das R, Silva MJ, Sakiyama-Elbert S, Amiel D, Gelberman RH. The effects of exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor on intrasynovial flexor tendon healing in a canine model. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Oct 6;92(13):2285-93.

98. Järvinen TA, Järvinen TL, Kääriäinen M, Aärimaa V, Vaittinen S, Kalimo H, Järvinen M. Muscle injuries: optimising recovery. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Apr;21(2):317-31.

99. Larkin LM, Van der Meulen JH, Dennis RG, Kennedy JB. Functional evaluation of nerve-skeletal muscle constructs engineered in vitro. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2006 Mar-Apr;42(3-4):75-82.

News & Events Latest news from Discoveries

  • 2021, July| 2021, Jul-Aug

    Due to the high volume of the submitted articles, both Discoveries and Discoveries Reports are experiencing processing and publication delays in the months of July and August 2021. We will get back to the normal processing and publication times starting in September 2021. Note that our editorial and administrativ work is fully funded by the publishing house at this time and we are striving to KEEP THE NO FEE strategy in place as long as possible. 

  • 2021, January| 2021 AWARDS!

    2021 DISCOVERIES AWARDS! Discoveries will offer a $1000 award and several $400 awards in Jan 2022, for the most cited (2021 ISI Citations) and visible (Altmetric Score) articles published in 2018-2021.

  • 2020, November| Follow us on Twitter!

    You can now follow the latest Discoveries news and updates on Twitter! (@DiscoveriesNews) 

  • 2020, August| For Authors!

    Due to a high volume of article submissions, our peer-review process takes more than usual. The pre-screening decision is released in 1-2 days, while the peer-review process lasts between 10 and 20 days.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    WE DO NOT TOLERATE ANY MISCONDUCT! Please be aware that we are testing all received articles with specialized software for PLAGIARISM and WE WILL TAKE MEASURES if your article is already published or in consideration for publication by other journals! This may result in serious professional consequences for the authors. The latest striking case is the following article which is already published and was re-submitted here.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    We are happy to let you know that all articles published in Discoveries are now included in PubMedCentral (PMC). New accepted articles will be included in PMC and PubMed within 1-2 weeks after their publication.

  • 2020, January | For Authors!

    Starting in January 2020, Discoveries will also consider articles submitted by Discoveries' Editorial Board members. However, only a small number of such articles (maximum 4 articles/year) will be considered for publication after the peer-review process, and the authors who are also our editors will be clearly disclosed.  

  • 2019, September | Indexed by PMC

    Discoveries is now indexed by PubMedCentral and Pubmed. The agreement with US National Library of Medicine was signed on September 10, 2019. Our next step is ISI Web of Science indexing. NOTE: previously published articles will be included on PubMed in early 2020.

  • 2019, September | PubMed inclusion!

    We are happy to let you know that Discoveries successfuly passed the last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion!

  • 2019, July | PubMed inclusion News!

    We are happy to receive positive comments from PMC/NLM-NIH regarding Discoveries' last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion. We will let you know once whole indexing process is completed. 

  • 2019| Sharing and Distribution!

    All articles published in Discoveries are Open Access articles distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and it is not used for commercial purposes.

  • 2018-2019 | For Authors!

    From now on and for at least 1 year, we will only accept articles from authors that are NOT members of Discoveries' Editorial Board. All articles submitted by our editors will be immediately rejected until further notice (one accepted article was already rejected). 

  • 2018 | PubMed inclusion News!

    Discoveries successfully passed the Scientific Quality Review by NLM-NIH for PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing. This is the first and the most important step towards PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing! The second (last) step is the Technical Review.

  • 2016, April | Faster Peer-Review

    Starting on April 13th 2016, all articles selected for a peer-review will receive the post peer-review decision within ~10 days. The initial pre-screening time will remain the same (48h from the submission of the manuscript). This decision will significantly accelerate the publication, with no effect on the quality of the peer-review process.

  • 2016, February | Manuscript submission

    Discoveries is commited to excellence, quality and high editorial standards. We are receiving an increasing number of manuscripts for which the identity of the authors/corresponding author can't be verified. Please NOTE that ALL these articles were and will be immediately REJECTED. Indicating an institutional email address is the easiest way to overcome this problem! Moreover, we do not accept any pressure on our editorial board to accept a manuscript. This results in a prompt rejection of the article.

    Editorial Policies
  • 2016, January | Main Objective

    After reaching all proposed milestones until now (including being indexed by Google Scholar in 2014), Discoveries' next Aim is PubMed indexing of all its articles (already published and upcoming). There will be no charge for the submission or publication of articles before Discoveries is indexed.

  • 2015, August | Discoveries - on PubMed

    We are happy to announce that our first Discoveries articles were included in PMC and PubMed. More articles (submitted by NIH funded authors) are now processed for being included.

    Discoveries articles now on PubMed
  • 2015, April | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES published the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "INFLAMMATION BETWEEN DEFENSE AND DISEASE: Impact on Tissue Repair and Chronic Sickness".

    Special Issue on "Inflammation"
  • 2015 | Ischemia Collection

    DISCOVERIES launched a call for papers for a Collection of Articles with focus on "ISCHEMIA". If you are interested to submit a manuscript, please contact us at info@discoveriesjournals.org

  • 2014, September | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES just publish the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "CELL SECRETION & MEMBRANE FUSION" in September 2014. Initially scheduled for publication between October 2014-March 2015, this issue was successfully published earlier than scheduled. 

    Special Issue
  • 2014, April | Indexed by Google Scholar

    All our published articles are now indexed by Google Scholar! First citations to Discoveries articles are included! Search for the article's title (recommended) or the authors:

    Google Scholar Search
  • 2014 | DISCOVERIES

    DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) are now assigned to all our published manuscripts in Discoveries. DOI uniquely identifies an article and is provided by CrossRef.

  • 2013, July | Manuscript Submission

    Submit your manuscript FREE, FAST and EASY ! (in less than 1 minute)! There are NO fees for the manuscript submission or publishing of the accepted manuscripts.
    read more

  • 2013, July | DISCOVERIES

    We are now ACCEPTING MANUSCRIPTS for publishing in DISCOVERIES. We aim publishing a small number of high impact experimental articles & reviews (around 40/year) to maintain a high impact factor. Domains of interest: all areas related to Medicine, Biology and Chemistry ...

    read more
Member Login
Free Registration Click here to sign up
Copyright © 2013 Applied Systems. All Rights Reserved.