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Biomimetic Scaffolds for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232), 2019, January-March issue

CITATION: 

Mulbauer GD, Matthew HWT. Biomimetic Scaffolds for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration. Discoveries 2019, 7(1); e90. DOI:10.15190/d.2019.3

Pre-submission: December 4th, 2018; Submission: March 29th, 2019; Revised: March 31st, 2019; Accepted: March 31st, 2019; Online: March 31st, 2019; Published in its final version: April 23rd, 2019. 

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Biomimetic Scaffolds for Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

Greta D. Mulbauer *, Howard W.T. Matthew *

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA;

*Corresponding authors: Howard W.T. Matthew, PhD and Greta D. Mulbauer, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Detroit, MI 48202, United States. Emails: hmatthew@wayne.edu and greta.mulbauer@wayne.edu respectively;

Abstract

Skeletal muscle tissue has inherent capacity for regeneration in response to minor injuries. However, in the case of severe trauma, tumor ablations, or in congenital muscle defects, these myopathies can cause irreversible loss of muscle mass and function, a condition referred to as volumetric muscle loss (VML). The natural muscle repair mechanisms are overwhelmed, prompting the search for new muscle regenerative strategies, such as using biomaterials that can provide regenerative signals to either transplanted or host muscle cells. Recent studies involve the use of suitable biomaterials which may be utilized as a template to guide tissue reorganization and ultimately provide optimum micro-environmental conditions to cells. These strategies range from approaches that utilize biomaterials alone to those that combine materials with exogenous growth factors, and ex vivo cultured cells. A number of scaffold materials have been used in the development of grafts to treat VML. In this brief review, we outline the natural skeletal regeneration process, available treatments used in the clinic for muscle injury and promising tissue bioengineering and regenerative approaches for muscle loss treatment.

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