Existing users Log In New users Sign up


Nanoscale Imaging of Synaptic Connections with Expansion Microscopy

DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232), 2019, July-September issue

CITATION: 

Gallagher B, Zhao Y. Nanoscale Imaging of Synaptic Connections with Expansion Microscopy. Discoveries 2019, 7(3): e101. DOI: 10.15190/d.2019.14

Submitted: September 27th, 2019; Revised: September 30th, 2019; Accepted: September 30th, 2019; Published: September 30th, 2019; 

 GO BACK to 2019, July-September issue

 GO BACK to DISCOVERIES

Nanoscale Imaging of Synaptic Connections with Expansion Microscopy

Brendan Gallagher, Yongxin Zhao (*)

Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

*Corresponding author: Yongxin Zhao, PhD, Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, Phone: +1 412-268-8236; Email:yongxinz@andrew.cmu.edu

Abstract

Biologists have long looked for ways to circumvent the physical diffraction limit of light and have developed many strategies to accomplish this. While many techniques employed to image sub-diffraction-limit structures rely on sophisticated equipment and computational methods, expansion microscopy (ExM) is unique in that it provides increase in resolution by physically expanding the sample embedded in a water-swellable hydrogel. ExM has rapidly grown in prevalence, owing to its ease of use and economic nature – all necessary reagents are commercially available, and samples may be imaged in large volume on conventional fluorescence microscopes. Here, we demonstrate the power of expansion microscopy on imaging synaptic connections onto a dopaminergic neuron, in the mouse substantia nigra pars compacta, with nanoscale resolution.


Access full text of the manuscript here: 

References

1. Hanninen PE, Hell SW, Salo J, Soini E, Cremer C. Two-photon excitation 4Pi confocal microscope: enhanced axial resolution microscope for biological research. Appl. Phys. Lett. 1995; 66: 1698. doi:10.1063/1.113897

2. Gustafsson MG. Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy. J Microsc. 2000 May;198(Pt 2):82-7. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2818.2000.00710.x

3. Hell SW. Far-field optical nanoscopy. in 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, PHOTINICS 2010; 3–4. doi:10.1109/PHOTONICS.2010.5698725

4. Bates M, Huang B, Dempsey GT, Zhuang X. Multicolor super-resolution imaging with photo-switchable fluorescent probes. Science. 2007 Sep 21;317(5845):1749-53. doi: 10.1038/s41556-018-0251-8

5. Schermelleh L, Ferrand A, Huser T, Eggeling C, Sauer M, Biehlmaier O, Drummen GPC. Super-resolution microscopy demystified. 2019 Jan;21(1):72-84. doi: 10.1038/s41556-018-0251-8

6. Chen F, Tillberg PW, Boyden ES. Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy. Science. 2015 Jan 30;347(6221):543-8. doi: 10.1126/science .1260088

7. Truckenbrodt S et al. X10 Expansion Microscopy Enables 25 nm Resolution on Conventional Microscopes. EMBO Rep. 2018 Sep;19(9). pii: e45836. doi: 10.15252/embr.201845836

8. Wassie AT, Zhao Y, Boyden ES. Expansion microscopy: principles and uses in biological research. Nat Methods. 2019 Jan;16(1):33-41. doi: 10.1038/s41592-018-0219-4

9. Yamaguchi T, Wang HL, Morales M. Glutamate neurons in the substantia nigra compacta and retrorubral field. Eur J Neurosci. 2013 Dec;38(11):3602-10. doi: 10.1111/ejn.12359

News & Events Latest news from Discoveries

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    WE DO NOT TOLERATE ANY MISCONDUCT! Please be aware that we are testing all received articles with specialized software for PLAGIARISM and WE WILL TAKE MEASURES if your article is already published or in consideration for publication by other journals! This may result in serious professional consequences for the authors. The latest striking case is the following article which is already published and was re-submitted here.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    We are happy to let you know that all articles published in Discoveries are now included in PubMedCentral (PMC). New accepted articles will be included in PMC and PubMed within 1-2 weeks after their publication.

  • 2020, January | For Authors!

    Starting in January 2020, Discoveries will also consider articles submitted by Discoveries' Editorial Board members. However, only a small number of such articles (maximum 4 articles/year) will be considered for publication after the peer-review process, and the authors who are also our editors will be clearly disclosed.  

  • 2019, September | Indexed by PMC

    Discoveries is now indexed by PubMedCentral and Pubmed. The agreement with US National Library of Medicine was signed on September 10th, 2019. Our next step is ISI indexing. NOTE: previously published articles will be included on PubMed in early 2020.

  • 2019, September | PubMed inclusion!

    We are happy to let you know that Discoveries successfuly passed the last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion!

  • 2019, July | PubMed inclusion News!

    We are happy to receive positive comments from PMC/NLM-NIH regarding Discoveries' last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion. We will let you know once whole indexing process is completed. 

  • 2019| Sharing and Distribution!

    All articles published in Discoveries are Open Access articles distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and it is not used for commercial purposes.

  • 2018-2019 | For Authors!

    From now on and for at least 1 year, we will only accept articles from authors that are NOT members of Discoveries' Editorial Board. All articles submitted by our editors will be immediately rejected until further notice (one accepted article was already rejected). 

  • 2018 | PubMed inclusion News!

    Discoveries successfully passed the Scientific Quality Review by NLM-NIH for PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing. This is the first and the most important step towards PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing! The second (last) step is the Technical Review.

  • 2016, April | Faster Peer-Review

    Starting on April 13th 2016, all articles selected for a peer-review will receive the post peer-review decision within ~10 days. The initial pre-screening time will remain the same (48h from the submission of the manuscript). This decision will significantly accelerate the publication, with no effect on the quality of the peer-review process.

  • 2016, February | Manuscript submission

    Discoveries is commited to excellence, quality and high editorial standards. We are receiving an increasing number of manuscripts for which the identity of the authors/corresponding author can't be verified. Please NOTE that ALL these articles were and will be immediately REJECTED. Indicating an institutional email address is the easiest way to overcome this problem! Moreover, we do not accept any pressure on our editorial board to accept a manuscript. This results in a prompt rejection of the article.

    Editorial Policies
  • 2016, January | Main Objective

    After reaching all proposed milestones until now (including being indexed by Google Scholar in 2014), Discoveries' next Aim is PubMed indexing of all its articles (already published and upcoming). There will be no charge for the submission or publication of articles before Discoveries is indexed.

  • 2015, August | Discoveries - on PubMed

    We are happy to announce that our first Discoveries articles were included in PMC and PubMed. More articles (submitted by NIH funded authors) are now processed for being included.

    Discoveries articles now on PubMed
  • 2015, April | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES published the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "INFLAMMATION BETWEEN DEFENSE AND DISEASE: Impact on Tissue Repair and Chronic Sickness".

    Special Issue on "Inflammation"
  • 2015 | Ischemia Collection

    DISCOVERIES launched a call for papers for a Collection of Articles with focus on "ISCHEMIA". If you are interested to submit a manuscript, please contact us at info@discoveriesjournals.org

  • 2014, September | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES just publish the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "CELL SECRETION & MEMBRANE FUSION" in September 2014. Initially scheduled for publication between October 2014-March 2015, this issue was successfully published earlier than scheduled. 

    Special Issue
  • 2014, April | Indexed by Google Scholar

    All our published articles are now indexed by Google Scholar! First citations to Discoveries articles are included! Search for the article's title (recommended) or the authors:

    Google Scholar Search
  • 2014 | DISCOVERIES

    DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) are now assigned to all our published manuscripts in Discoveries. DOI uniquely identifies an article and is provided by CrossRef.

    CrossRef
  • 2013, July | Manuscript Submission

    Submit your manuscript FREE, FAST and EASY ! (in less than 1 minute)! There are NO fees for the manuscript submission or publishing of the accepted manuscripts.
    read more

  • 2013, July | DISCOVERIES

    We are now ACCEPTING MANUSCRIPTS for publishing in DISCOVERIES. We aim publishing a small number of high impact experimental articles & reviews (around 40/year) to maintain a high impact factor. Domains of interest: all areas related to Medicine, Biology and Chemistry ...

    read more
Member Login
Free Registration Click here to sign up
Copyright © 2013 Applied Systems. All Rights Reserved.