DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232), 2020, April-June issue


Anwar H, Khan QU, Nadeem N, Pervaiz I, Ali M, Cheema FF. Epileptic seizures. Discoveries 2020, 8(2): e110. DOI: 10.15190/d.2020.7

Submitted: May 20, 2020; Revision: June 02, 2020; Accepted: June 02, 2020; Published: June 12, 2020; 

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Epileptic seizures

Haleema Anwar*, Qudsia Umaira Khan*, Natasha Nadeem, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Ali, Fatima Fayyaz Cheema

CMH Lahore Medical College & Institute of Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: Haleema Anwar and Qudsia Umaira Khan, CMH Lahore Medical College & Institute of Dentistry, Abdur Rehman Road, Lahore Cantt, Pakistan. Emails: and respectively


Epilepsy is a condition marked by abnormal neuronal discharges or hyperexcitability of neurons with synchronicity and is recognized as a major public health concern. The pathology is categorized into three subgroups: acquired, idiopathic, and epilepsy of genetic or developmental origin. There are approximately 1000 associated genes and the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediated inhibition, as well as glutamate mediated excitation, forms the basis of pathology. Epilepsy is further classified as being of focal, general or unknown onset. Genetic predisposition, comorbidities and novel biomarkers are useful for prediction. Prevalent postictal symptoms are postictal headache and migraine, postictal psychosis and delirium, postictal Todd’s paresis and postictal automatisms. Diagnostic methods include electroencephalography (EEG), computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and genetic testing; EEG and MRI are the two main techniques. Clinical history and witness testimonies combined with a knowledge of seizure semiology helps in distinguishing between seizures. Clinical information and patient history do not always lead to a clear diagnosis, in which case EEG and 24-hour EEG monitoring with video recording (video-EEG/vEEG) help in seizure differentiation. Treatment includes first aid, therapeutics such as anti-epileptic drugs, surgery, ketogenic diet and gene therapy. In this review, we are focusing on summarizing published literature on epilepsy and epileptic seizures, and concisely apprise the reader of the latest cutting-edge advances and knowledge on epileptic seizures.

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