DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232), 2020, April-June issue

CITATION: 

Anwar H, Khan QU, Nadeem N, Pervaiz I, Ali M, Cheema FF. Epileptic seizures. Discoveries 2020, 8(2): e110. DOI: 10.15190/d.2020.7


Submitted: May 20, 2020; Revision: June 02, 2020; Accepted: June 02, 2020; Published: June 12, 2020; 

 GO BACK to 2020, April-June issue

 GO BACK to DISCOVERIES

Epileptic seizures

Haleema Anwar*, Qudsia Umaira Khan*, Natasha Nadeem, Iqra Pervaiz, Muhammad Ali, Fatima Fayyaz Cheema

CMH Lahore Medical College & Institute of Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: Haleema Anwar and Qudsia Umaira Khan, CMH Lahore Medical College & Institute of Dentistry, Abdur Rehman Road, Lahore Cantt, Pakistan. Emails: haleemaa670@gmail.com and drqudsia@yahoo.com respectively

Abstract

Epilepsy is a condition marked by abnormal neuronal discharges or hyperexcitability of neurons with synchronicity and is recognized as a major public health concern. The pathology is categorized into three subgroups: acquired, idiopathic, and epilepsy of genetic or developmental origin. There are approximately 1000 associated genes and the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediated inhibition, as well as glutamate mediated excitation, forms the basis of pathology. Epilepsy is further classified as being of focal, general or unknown onset. Genetic predisposition, comorbidities and novel biomarkers are useful for prediction. Prevalent postictal symptoms are postictal headache and migraine, postictal psychosis and delirium, postictal Todd’s paresis and postictal automatisms. Diagnostic methods include electroencephalography (EEG), computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and genetic testing; EEG and MRI are the two main techniques. Clinical history and witness testimonies combined with a knowledge of seizure semiology helps in distinguishing between seizures. Clinical information and patient history do not always lead to a clear diagnosis, in which case EEG and 24-hour EEG monitoring with video recording (video-EEG/vEEG) help in seizure differentiation. Treatment includes first aid, therapeutics such as anti-epileptic drugs, surgery, ketogenic diet and gene therapy. In this review, we are focusing on summarizing published literature on epilepsy and epileptic seizures, and concisely apprise the reader of the latest cutting-edge advances and knowledge on epileptic seizures.


Access full text of the manuscript here: 

References

1. Giourou E, Stavropoulou-Deli A, Giannakopoulou A, Kostopoulos GK, Koutroumanidis M.  Introduction to Epilepsy and Related Brain Disorders. Epilepsy Res. 2015:11-38.
2. Stafstrom CE, Carmant L. Seizures and Epilepsy: An Overview for Neuroscientists. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. (2015).
3. Valton L, Benaiteau M, Denuelle M, Rulquin F, Hachon Le Camus C, Hein C, et al. Etiological assessment of status epilepticus. Revue Neurologique. 2020; 176(6):408-426.
4. Fisher RS, Cross JH, French JA, Higurashi N, Hirsch E, Jansen FE et al. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: Position Paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017; 58(4):522-530.
5. Wang J, Lin ZJ, Liu L, Xu HQ, Shi YW, Yi YH, et al. Epilepsy-associated genes. Seizure. 2017; 44:11.
6. Hui Yin Y, Ahmad N, Makmor-Bakry M. Pathogenesis of Epilepsy: Challenges in Animal Models. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences. 2013; 16(11):1119.
7. Carvill GL, McMahon JM, Schneider A, Zemel M, Myers CT, Saykally J et al. Mutations in the GABA Transporter SLC6A1 Cause Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures. American Journal of Human Genetics 2015; 96(5):808-815.
8. Berlinski GA. New Concepts in Operational Seizure Classification. MedPageToday 2017, Accessed in May 2020; https://www.medpagetoday.com/resource-centers/focus-on-epilepsy/new-concepts-operational-seizure-classification/1520
9. Fisher RS, Cross JH, D'Souza C, French JA, Haut SR, Higurashi N, et al. Instruction manual for the ILAE 2017 operational classification of seizure types. Epilepsia. 2017; 58(4):531.
10. Bahari F, Ssentongo P, Schiff SJ, Gluckman BJ Brain-Heart Biomarker for Epileptogenesis. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2018; 38(39):8473-8483.
11. Engel J Jr, Bragin A, Staba R. Nonictal EEG biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment. Epilepsia Open. 2018; 3(Suppl Suppl 2):120.
12. Ravizza T, Onat FY, Brooks-Kayal AR, Depaulis A, Galanopoulou AS, Mazarati A, et al. WONOEP appraisal: Biomarkers of epilepsy-associated comorbidities. Epilepsia. 2017; 58(3):331-342.
13. Neng X, Xiao M, Yuanlu C, Qinyan L, Li S, Zhanyi S. Novel variant in CHRNA4 with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes and contribution to precise medicine. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine. 2020; DOI: 10.1002/mgg3.1264.
14. Berger TC, Vigeland MD, Hjorthaug HS, Etholm L, Nome CG, Taubøll E et al. Neuronal and glial DNA methylation and gene expression changes in early epileptogenesis. Plos One 2019; 14(12):e0226575.
15. Hu ZY, Wang HY, Wang Y. Recent progress in identifying genetic and epigenetic contributions to epilepsy. Reprod Dev Med. 2017;1:239-49.
16. Vaudano AE, Ruggieri A, Avanzini P, Gessaroli G, Cantalupo G, Coppola A et al. Photosensitive epilepsy is associated with reduced inhibition of alpha rhythm generating networks. Brain: a journal of neurology. 2017; 140(4):981.
17. Chen X, Peng X, Wang L, Fu X, Zhou JX, Zhu B et al. Association of RASgrf1 methylation with epileptic seizures. Oncotarget. 2019; 8(28):46286-46297.
18. Okudan ZV, Özkara Ç. Reflex epilepsy: triggers and management strategies. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2018;14:327-337.
19. Dinner D, Lüders H. Epilepsy and Sleep. Academic Press 2001; 1st edition, 285 – 290; eBook ISBN: 9780080491288.
20. Subota A, Khan S, Josephson CB, Manji S, Lukmanji S, Roach P et al. Signs and symptoms of the postictal period in epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Epilepsy & Behavior. Epilepsy Res. 2019;94:243–251.
21. Duko B, Ayalew M, Toma A. The epidemiology of headaches among patients with epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Headache and Pain. 2020; 21(1).
22. Salma Z, Hanen HK, Salma S, Olfa H, Nouha F, Mariem D et al. Headaches and their relationships to epileptic seizures. Epilepsy & Behavior. 2018; 90:233-237.
23. Kaplan, P. and Fisher, R., Imitators of Epilepsy. Demos Medical Pub., New York, 2005; 200.
24. Abood W, Bandyopadhyay S. Postictal Seizure State In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing;  2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526004/
25. de Toffol B, Kanemoto K. Clinique et neurobiologie des psychoses post-ictales. L'Encéphale. 2016; 42(5):443-447.
26. Xu S, Li Z, Wu X, Li L, Li C. Frequency and Pathophysiology of Post-Seizure Todd’s Paralysis. Medical Science Monitor. 2020; 26.
27. Loesch AM, Steger H, Losher C, Hartl E, Rémi J, Vollmar C et al.  Seizure-associated aphasia has good lateralizing but poor localizing significance. Epilepsia. 2017; 58(9):1551-1555.
28. Dede HÖ, Bebek N, Gürses C, Baysal-Kıraç L, Baykan B, Gökyiğit A. Genital automatisms: Reappraisal of a remarkable but ignored symptom of focal seizures. Epilepsy & behavior: E&B, 2018; 80:84.
29. World Health Organization. Atlas: Epilepsy care in the world. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2005.
30. Meyer A, Dua T, Ma J, Saxena S, Birbeck G. Global disparities in the epilepsy treatment gap: a systematic review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2009; 88(4):260-266.
31. Nass RD, Sassen R, Elger CE, Surges R. The role of postictal laboratory blood analyses in the diagnosis and prognosis of seizures. Seizure. 2017; 47:51.
32. Maganti RK, Rutecki P. EEG and epilepsy monitoring. CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology. 2013; 19:598–622.
33. Téllez-Zenteno JF, Hernández Ronguillo L, Moien-Afshari F, Wiebe S. Surgical outcomes in lesional and non-lesional epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epilepsy Res. 2010; 89:310–18.
34. Brázdil M, Mikl M, Chlebus P, Pazourková M, Novák Z, Chrastina J, et al. Combining advanced neuroimaging techniques in presurgical workup of non-lesional intractable epilepsy. Epileptic disorders. Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape 2006; 8(3):190-4.
35. Cendes F. Neuroimaging in investigation of patients with epilepsy. Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.) 2013; 19(3 Epilepsy):623.
36. Berkovic SF. Genetics of epilepsy in clinical practice. Epilepsy Currents. 2015; 15:192-6.
37. Van Paesschen W, Dupont P, Van Driel G, Van Billoen H, Maes A. SPECT perfusion changes during complex partial seizures in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. Brain: a Journal of Neurology. 2003;126(Pt 5):1103-11.
38. Xiang X, Fang J, Guo Y. Differential diagnosis between epileptic seizures and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures based on semiology. Acta Epileptologica. 2019; 1(1).
39. Benbadis, Selim.  The differential diagnosis of epilepsy: A critical review. Epilepsy & Behavior. 2009; 15(1):15-21.
40. Malmgren K, Stödberg T, Amandusson Å, Strandberg M. Diagnosing epileptic seizures and epilepsy. Lakartidningen. 2018; 115.
41. Devinsky O, Gazzola D, LaFrance WC. Differentiating between nonepileptic and epileptic seizures. Nature reviews. Neurology. 2011; 7(4):210-20.
42. Tyson BT, Baker S, Greenacre M, Kent KJ, Lichtenstein JD, Sabelli A et al. Differentiating epilepsy from psychogenic nonepileptic seizures using neuropsychological test data. Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B. 2018;87:39-45.
43. Eze CN, Ebuehi OM, Brigo F, Otte WM, Igwe SC. Effect of health education on trainee teachers’ knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy: An interventional study. Seizure. 2015; 33:46–53.
44. Zhao T, Gao Y, Zhu X, Wang N, Chen Y, Zhang J et al. Awareness, attitudes toward epilepsy, and first aid knowledge of seizures of hospital staff in Henan, China. Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B. 2017; 74:144-148.
45. Dalic, Linda & Cook, Mark. Managing drug-resistant epilepsy: challenges and solutions. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. Epilepsy Res. 2016;12:2605-2616.
46. Kaur H, Kumar B, Medhi B. Antiepileptic drugs in development pipeline: A recent update. eNeurologicalSci. 2016;4:42-51.
47. Brodie MJ, Besag F, Ettinger AB, Mula M, Gobbi G, Comai S et al. Epilepsy, Antiepileptic Drugs, and Aggression: An Evidence-Based Review. Pharmacological Rreviews 2016; 68(3):563-602.
48. Boling, Warren. Surgical Considerations of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Brain Sciences. 2018; 8(2).
49. Englot DJ, Chang EF, Vecht CJ. Epilepsy and brain tumors. Handbook of Clinical Neurology 2016; 134:267-285.
50. Jermakowicz WJ, Cajigas I, Dan L, Guerra S, Sur S, D’Haese P, et al. Ablation dynamics during laser interstitial thermal therapy for mesiotemporal epilepsy. Plos One. 2018; 13(7):e0199190.
51. Chan AY, Rolston JD, Lee B, Vadera S, Englot DJ. Rates and predictors of seizure outcome after corpus callosotomy for drug-resistant epilepsy: a meta-analysis. Journal of Neurosurgery 2018;130(4):1193-1202.
52. Starnes K, Miller K, Wong-Kisiel L, Lundstrom BN. A Review of Neurostimulation for Epilepsy in Pediatrics. Brain Sciences. 2019; 9(10):283.
53. Zhang Y, Xu J, Zhang K, Yang W, Li B. The Anticonvulsant Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Epileptic Seizures and Potential Mechanisms. Current Neuropharmacology. 2017; 16(1).
54. Agostinho AS, Mietzsch M, Zangrandi L et al. Dynorphin-based "release on demand" gene therapy for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. EMBO Mol Med. 2019;11(10).
55. Lieb A, Qiu Y, Dixon CL, Heller JP, Walker MC, Schorge S, et al. Biochemical autoregulatory gene therapy for focal epilepsy. Nature Medicine. 2018;24(9):1324‐1329.
56. Drew L. Gene therapy targets epilepsy. Nature. 2018;564(7735):S10‐S11.
57. Ingusci S, Cattaneo S, Verlengia G, Zucchini S, Simonato M. A Matter of Genes: The Hurdles of Gene Therapy for Epilepsy. Epilepsy Currents. 2019;19(1):38‐43.

News & Events Latest news from Discoveries

  • 2021, January| 2021 AWARDS!

    2021 DISCOVERIES AWARDS! Discoveries will offer a $1000 award and at least five $400 awards in Jan 2022, for the most cited (2021 ISI Citations) and visible (Altmetric Score) articles published in 2018-2021.

  • 2020, November| Follow us on Twitter!

    You can now follow the latest Discoveries news and updates on Twitter! (@DiscoveriesNews) 

  • 2020, August| For Authors!

    Due to a high volume of article submissions, our peer-review process takes more than usual. The pre-screening decision is released in 1-2 days, while the peer-review process lasts between 10 and 20 days.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    WE DO NOT TOLERATE ANY MISCONDUCT! Please be aware that we are testing all received articles with specialized software for PLAGIARISM and WE WILL TAKE MEASURES if your article is already published or in consideration for publication by other journals! This may result in serious professional consequences for the authors. The latest striking case is the following article which is already published and was re-submitted here.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    We are happy to let you know that all articles published in Discoveries are now included in PubMedCentral (PMC). New accepted articles will be included in PMC and PubMed within 1-2 weeks after their publication.

  • 2020, January | For Authors!

    Starting in January 2020, Discoveries will also consider articles submitted by Discoveries' Editorial Board members. However, only a small number of such articles (maximum 4 articles/year) will be considered for publication after the peer-review process, and the authors who are also our editors will be clearly disclosed.  

  • 2019, September | Indexed by PMC

    Discoveries is now indexed by PubMedCentral and Pubmed. The agreement with US National Library of Medicine was signed on September 10, 2019. Our next step is ISI Web of Science indexing. NOTE: previously published articles will be included on PubMed in early 2020.

  • 2019, September | PubMed inclusion!

    We are happy to let you know that Discoveries successfuly passed the last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion!

  • 2019, July | PubMed inclusion News!

    We are happy to receive positive comments from PMC/NLM-NIH regarding Discoveries' last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion. We will let you know once whole indexing process is completed. 

  • 2019| Sharing and Distribution!

    All articles published in Discoveries are Open Access articles distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and it is not used for commercial purposes.

  • 2018-2019 | For Authors!

    From now on and for at least 1 year, we will only accept articles from authors that are NOT members of Discoveries' Editorial Board. All articles submitted by our editors will be immediately rejected until further notice (one accepted article was already rejected). 

  • 2018 | PubMed inclusion News!

    Discoveries successfully passed the Scientific Quality Review by NLM-NIH for PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing. This is the first and the most important step towards PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing! The second (last) step is the Technical Review.

  • 2016, April | Faster Peer-Review

    Starting on April 13th 2016, all articles selected for a peer-review will receive the post peer-review decision within ~10 days. The initial pre-screening time will remain the same (48h from the submission of the manuscript). This decision will significantly accelerate the publication, with no effect on the quality of the peer-review process.

  • 2016, February | Manuscript submission

    Discoveries is commited to excellence, quality and high editorial standards. We are receiving an increasing number of manuscripts for which the identity of the authors/corresponding author can't be verified. Please NOTE that ALL these articles were and will be immediately REJECTED. Indicating an institutional email address is the easiest way to overcome this problem! Moreover, we do not accept any pressure on our editorial board to accept a manuscript. This results in a prompt rejection of the article.

    Editorial Policies
  • 2016, January | Main Objective

    After reaching all proposed milestones until now (including being indexed by Google Scholar in 2014), Discoveries' next Aim is PubMed indexing of all its articles (already published and upcoming). There will be no charge for the submission or publication of articles before Discoveries is indexed.

  • 2015, August | Discoveries - on PubMed

    We are happy to announce that our first Discoveries articles were included in PMC and PubMed. More articles (submitted by NIH funded authors) are now processed for being included.

    Discoveries articles now on PubMed
  • 2015, April | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES published the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "INFLAMMATION BETWEEN DEFENSE AND DISEASE: Impact on Tissue Repair and Chronic Sickness".

    Special Issue on "Inflammation"
  • 2015 | Ischemia Collection

    DISCOVERIES launched a call for papers for a Collection of Articles with focus on "ISCHEMIA". If you are interested to submit a manuscript, please contact us at info@discoveriesjournals.org

  • 2014, September | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES just publish the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "CELL SECRETION & MEMBRANE FUSION" in September 2014. Initially scheduled for publication between October 2014-March 2015, this issue was successfully published earlier than scheduled. 

    Special Issue
  • 2014, April | Indexed by Google Scholar

    All our published articles are now indexed by Google Scholar! First citations to Discoveries articles are included! Search for the article's title (recommended) or the authors:

    Google Scholar Search
  • 2014 | DISCOVERIES

    DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) are now assigned to all our published manuscripts in Discoveries. DOI uniquely identifies an article and is provided by CrossRef.

    CrossRef
  • 2013, July | Manuscript Submission

    Submit your manuscript FREE, FAST and EASY ! (in less than 1 minute)! There are NO fees for the manuscript submission or publishing of the accepted manuscripts.
    read more

  • 2013, July | DISCOVERIES

    We are now ACCEPTING MANUSCRIPTS for publishing in DISCOVERIES. We aim publishing a small number of high impact experimental articles & reviews (around 40/year) to maintain a high impact factor. Domains of interest: all areas related to Medicine, Biology and Chemistry ...

    read more
Member Login
Free Registration Click here to sign up
Copyright © 2013 Applied Systems. All Rights Reserved.