Existing users Log In New users Sign up


COVID-19: Epidemiology and Treatment

DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232), 2020, April-June issue

CITATION: 

Jan H, Faisal S, Khan A, Khan S, Usman H, Liaqat R, Shah SA. COVID-19: Review of Epidemiology and Potential Treatments Against 2019 Novel Coronavirus. Discoveries 2020, 8(2): e108. DOI: 10.15190/d.2020.5


Submitted: April 01, 2020; First Revision: April 07, 2020; Second Revision: April 17, 2020; Accepted: April 18, 2020; Published: April 26, 2020; 

 GO BACK to 2020, April-June issue

 GO BACK to DISCOVERIES

COVID-19: Review of Epidemiology and Potential Treatments Against 2019 Novel Coronavirus

Hasnain Jan (1,2,*), Shah Faisal (2), Ayyaz Khan (1), Shahzar Khan (3), Hazrat Usman (1), Rabia Liaqat (4), Sajjad Ali Shah (2)

(1) Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
(2) Department of Biotechnology Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, Pakistan
(3) Department of Microbiology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan
(4) Department of Botany, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: Dr. Hasnain Jan, Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan; Email: hasnainjan@bs.qau.edu.pk

Abstract

An epidemic of extreme respiratory deterrence, pneumonia and shortness of breath, the SARS-CoV-2 viral infection began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019, and rapidly spread across China and beyond, with human to human transmission. On February 12, 2020, World Health Organization officially named the new coronavirus disease as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Most COVID-19 patients were diagnosed with pneumonia and many were treated using Chinese medicines and other secondary therapies. As of April 22, 2020, the total figure of infected patients has crossed 2.6 million people worldwide with over 180,000 deaths and 700,000 patients that have recovered. Preliminary reports suggest that certain drugs, such as chloroquine and antiviral nucleotide analogues such as remdesivir, which inhibit viral replication, can target the new coronavirus, although their usefulness in the clinic is still under debate. An expert US committee developed the US NIH guidelines for COVID-19 treatment, which was just released and will be regularly updated. This manuscript reviews the epidemiology, etiology, mortality, COVID-19 clinical symptoms, and potential therapeutic drugs, while highlighting the seriousness and damage-induced by SARS-CoV-2.


Access full text of the manuscript here: 

References

1. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet 2020, 395(10223): 497-506.
2. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. China Novel Coronavirus Investigating and Research Team. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 2020, 382(8): 727-733.
3. Phan LT, Nguyen TV, Luong QC, Nguyen TV, Nguyen HT, Le HQ, et al. Importation and human-to-human transmission of a novel coronavirus in Vietnam. New England Journal of Medicine 2020, 382(9): 872-874.
4. Giovanetti M, Benvenuto D, Angeletti S, Ciccozzi M. The first two cases of 2019‚ÄźnCoV in Italy: where they come from? Journal of Medical Virology 2020.
5. WHO. Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19). January 30, 2020; Accessed in April 2020 https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)
6. Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA, 2020, 323(13):1239.
7. Tyrrell D, Bynoe M. Cultivation of viruses from a high proportion of patients with colds. Lancet 1966: 76-77.
8. Zehra F. Literature on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)(2003-2011): A Bibliometric Study. Aligarh Muslim University, 2012.
9. Velavan TP, Meyer CG. The COVID-19 epidemic. Trop Med Int Health 2020, 25(3): 278-280.
10. Zhou P, Yang X, Wang X et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 579, 270–273 (2020).
11. Luo H, Tang QL, Shang YX, Liang SB, Yang M, Robinson N, et al. Can Chinese medicine be used for prevention of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? A review of historical classics, research evidence and current prevention programs. Chinese journal of integrative medicine 2020: 26(4):243-250.
12. Needham J, Gwei-Djen L. Hygiene and preventive medicine in ancient China. Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences 1962: 429-478.
13. Liu J, Manheimer E, Shi Y, Gluud C. Chinese herbal medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2004, 10(6): 1041-1051.
14. Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet 2020, 395(10224): 565-574.
15. Zu ZY, Jiang MD, Xu PP, Chen W, Ni QQ, Lu GM, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a perspective from China. Radiology 2020: 200490.
16. Kirchdoerfer RN, Cottrell CA, Wang N, Pallesen J, Yassine HM, Turner HL, et al. Pre-fusion structure of a human coronavirus spike protein. Nature 2016, 531(7592): 118-121.
17. Xu X, Chen P, Wang J, Feng J, Zhou H, Li X, et al. Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. Science China Life Sciences 2020, 63(3): 457-460.
18. Gorbalenya AE. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus–The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. BioRxiv 2020.
19. Organization WH. WHO Director-General's remarks at the media briefing on 2019-nCoV on 11 February 2020. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-2019-ncov-on-11-february-2020
20. Lam TT-Y, Shum MH-H, Zhu H-C, Tong Y-G, Ni X-B, Liao Y-S, et al. Identification of 2019-nCoV related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins in southern China. BioRxiv 2020.
21. Beniac DR, Andonov A, Grudeski E, Booth TF. Architecture of the SARS coronavirus prefusion spike. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 2006, 13(8): 751-752.
22. Wang P, Lu J, Jin Y, Zhu M, Wang L, Chen S. Epidemiological characteristics of 1212 COVID-19 patients in Henan, China. medRxiv 2020.
23. Chan JF-W, Yuan S, Kok K-H, To KK-W, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet 2020, 395(10223): 514-523.
24. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX et al. Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 30;382(18):1708-1720.
25. Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, Luo F, Yu X, Zhang W, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. The Lancet 2020, 395(10226): 809-815.
26. WHO. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report –51. World Health Organization. 2020, Accessed in April 2020. https://www.who.int/docs/ default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200311-sitrep-51-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=1ba62e57_10
27. WHO. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report –23. World Health Organization. 2020; Accessed in April 2020. https://www.who.int/docs/ default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200212-sitrep-23-ncov.pdf?sfvrsn=41e9fb78_4
28. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine 2020.
29. Carlos WG, Dela Cruz CS, Cao B, Pasnick S, Jamil S. Novel wuhan (2019-nCoV) coronavirus. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 2020, 201(4): P7-P8.
30. Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T, Tian F, Jin D-Y, Chen L, et al. Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19. Jama 2020.
31. Tavakoli A, Vahdat K, Keshavarz M. Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): An Emerging Infectious Disease in the 21st Century. ISMJ 2020, 22(6): 432-450.
32. Read JM, Bridgen JR, Cummings DA, Ho A, Jewell CP. Novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV: early estimation of epidemiological parameters and epidemic predictions. MedRxiv 2020.
33. Anastassopoulou C, Russo L, Tsakris A, Siettos C. Data-based analysis, modelling and forecasting of the COVID-19 outbreak. PloS one 2020, 15(3): e0230405.
34. Winter G. COVID-19 and emergency planning. British Journal of Healthcare Management 2020: 1-3.
35. Kofi Ayittey F, Dzuvor C, Kormla Ayittey M, Bennita Chiwero N, Habib A. Updates on Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus epidemic. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020, 92(4):403-407.
36. Anastassopoulou C, Russo L, Tsakris A, Siettos C. Data-Based Analysis, Modelling and Forecasting of the novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. medRxiv 2020.
37. Fang L, Karakiulakis G, Roth M. Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection? The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2020, 8(4): e21.
38. Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. [The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2020 Feb 17; 41(2):145-151.
39. Yang Y, Peng F, Wang R, Guan K, Jiang T, Xu G, et al. The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China. Journal of Autoimmunity 2020: 102434.
40. Qiu C, Xiao Q, Liao X, Deng Z, Liu H, Shu Y, et al. Transmission and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in 104 outside-Wuhan patients, China. medRxiv 2020.
41. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Jama 2020.
42. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet 2020, 395(10223): 507-513.
43. Dong L, Hu S, Gao J. Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics 2020, 14(1): 58-60.
44. Savarino A, Di Trani L, Donatelli I, Cauda R, Cassone A. New insights into the antiviral effects of chloroquine. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2006, 6(2): 67-69.
45. Yan Y, Zou Z, Sun Y, Li X, Xu KF, Wei Y et al. Anti-malaria drug chloroquine is highly effective in treating avian influenza A H5N1 virus infection in an animal model. Cell Research 2013, 23(2): 300-302.
46. Tsiang H, Superti F. Ammonium chloride and chloroquine inhibit rabies virus infection in neuroblastoma cells. Brief Report. Archives of Virology 1984, 81(3-4): 377-382.
47. Kronenberger P, Vrijsen R, Boeye A. Chloroquine induces empty capsid formation during poliovirus eclipse. Journal of Virology 1991, 65(12): 7008-7011.
48. Tsai WP, Nara PL, Kung HF, Oroszlan S. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus infectivity by chloroquine. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 1990, 6(4): 481-489.
49. Romanelli F, Smith KM, Hoven AD. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) activity. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2004, 10(21): 2643-2648.
50. Mizui T, Yamashina S, Tanida I, Takei Y, Ueno T, Sakamoto N, et al. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by chloroquine targeting virus-associated autophagy. Journal of Gastroenterology 2009, 45(2): 195-203.
51. Vincent MJ, Bergeron E, Benjannet S, Erickson BR, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, et al. Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread. Virology Journal 2005, 2: 69.
52. [Expert consensus on chloroquine phosphate for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia]. Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. 2020, 43: E019 DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2020.0019
53. Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Bioscience Trends 2020, 14(1): 72-73.
54. Ratliff NB, Estes ML, Myles JL, Shirey EK, McMahon JT. Diagnosis of chloroquine cardiomyopathy by endomyocardial biopsy. The New England Journal of Medicine 1987, 316(4): 191-193.
55. Iglesias Cubero G, Rodriguez Reguero JJ, Rojo Ortega JM. Restrictive cardiomyopathy caused by chloroquine. British Heart Journal 1993, 69(5): 451-452.
56. Bernstein HN. Ocular safety of hydroxychloroquine. Annals of Ophthalmology 1991, 23(8): 292-296.
57. Colson P, Rolain JM, Raoult D. Chloroquine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2020, 55(3): 105923.
58. Liu J, Cao R, Xu M, Wang X, Zhang H, Hu H, et al. Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Cell Discovery 2020, 6(1): 1-4.
59. Lenk C, Duttge G. Ethical and legal framework and regulation for off-label use: European perspective. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 2014, 10: 537-546.
60. Gautret P, Lagier J-C, Parola P, Meddeb L, Mailhe M, Doudier B, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2020: 105949.
61. Expert consensus on chloroquine phosphate for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia]. Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. 2020, 43(3):185 DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2020.03.009
62. Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Homoud AH, Memish ZA. Remdesivir as a possible therapeutic option for the COVID-19. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 2020: 101615.
63. Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Graham RL, Menachery VD, Gralinski LE, Case JB et al. Broad-spectrum antiviral GS-5734 inhibits both epidemic and zoonotic coronaviruses. Science Translational Medicine 2017, 9(396).
64. Zhu S, Guo X, Geary K, Zhang D. Emerging Therapeutic Strategies for COVID-19 patients. Discoveries 2020, 8(1): e105.
65. Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Research 2020, 30(3): 269-271.
66. Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Leist SR, Schafer A, Won J, Brown AJ et al. Comparative therapeutic efficacy of  remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV. Nature Communications 2020, 11(1): 222.
67. Delang L, Abdelnabi R, Neyts J. Favipiravir as a potential countermeasure against neglected and emerging RNA viruses. Antiviral Research 2018, 153: 85-94.
68. Warren TK, Jordan R, Lo MK, Ray AS, Mackman RL, Soloveva V et al. Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys. Nature 2016, 531(7594): 381-385.
69. Zhang B, Liu S, Tan T, Huang W, Dong Y, Chen L, et al. Treatment with convalescent plasma for critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Chest 2020.
70. Chen L, Xiong J, Bao L, Shi Y. Convalescent plasma as a potential therapy for COVID-19. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2020, 20(4): 398-400.
71. Shanmugaraj B, Siriwattananon K, Wangkanont K, Phoolcharoen W. Perspectives on monoclonal antibody therapy as potential therapeutic intervention for Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology 2020, 38(1): 10-18.
72. Tian X, Li C, Huang A, Xia S, Lu S, Shi Z et al. Potent binding of 2019 novel coronavirus spike protein by a SARS coronavirus-specific human monoclonal antibody. Emerging Microbes & Infections 2020, 9(1): 382-385.
73. Zumla A, Chan JF, Azhar EI, Hui DS, Yuen KY. Coronaviruses - drug discovery and therapeutic options. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2016, 15(5): 327-347.
74. Zhou Y, Hou Y, Shen J, Huang Y, Martin W, Cheng F. Network-based drug repurposing for novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2. Cell Discovery 2020, 6: 14.
75. Xu X, Han M, Li T, Sun W, Wang D, Fu B et al. Effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients with tocilizumab. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2020, Apr 29. pii: 202005615.
76. Chang, Y.; Tung, Y.; Lee, K.; Chen, T.; Hsiao, Y.; Chang, H.; Hsieh, T.; Su, C.; Wang, S.; Yu, J.; Shih, S.; Lin, Y.; Lin, Y.; Tu, Y.E.; Tung, C.; Chen, C. Potential Therapeutic Agents for COVID-19 Based on the Analysis of Protease and RNA Polymerase Docking. Preprints 2020, 2020020242. 
77. Richardson P, Griffin I, Tucker C, Smith D, Oechsle O, Phelan A et al. Baricitinib as potential treatment for 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease. The Lancet 2020, 395(10223): e30-e31.
78. Sorrell FJ, Szklarz M, Azeez KRA, Elkins JM, Knapp S. Family-wide structural analysis of human numb-associated protein kinases. Structure 2016, 24(3): 401-411.
79. Favalli EG, Biggioggero M, Maioli G, Caporali R. Baricitinib for COVID-19: a suitable treatment? The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2020, DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30262-0
80. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Treatment Guidelines, US National Institute of Health, Accessed in April 2020; https://covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/

News & Events Latest news from Discoveries

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    WE DO NOT TOLERATE ANY MISCONDUCT! Please be aware that we are testing all received articles with specialized software for PLAGIARISM and WE WILL TAKE MEASURES if your article is already published or in consideration for publication by other journals! This may result in serious professional consequences for the authors. The latest striking case is the following article which is already published and was re-submitted here.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    We are happy to let you know that all articles published in Discoveries are now included in PubMedCentral (PMC). New accepted articles will be included in PMC and PubMed within 1-2 weeks after their publication.

  • 2020, January | For Authors!

    Starting in January 2020, Discoveries will also consider articles submitted by Discoveries' Editorial Board members. However, only a small number of such articles (maximum 4 articles/year) will be considered for publication after the peer-review process, and the authors who are also our editors will be clearly disclosed.  

  • 2019, September | Indexed by PMC

    Discoveries is now indexed by PubMedCentral and Pubmed. The agreement with US National Library of Medicine was signed on September 10th, 2019. Our next step is ISI indexing. NOTE: previously published articles will be included on PubMed in early 2020.

  • 2019, September | PubMed inclusion!

    We are happy to let you know that Discoveries successfuly passed the last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion!

  • 2019, July | PubMed inclusion News!

    We are happy to receive positive comments from PMC/NLM-NIH regarding Discoveries' last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion. We will let you know once whole indexing process is completed. 

  • 2019| Sharing and Distribution!

    All articles published in Discoveries are Open Access articles distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and it is not used for commercial purposes.

  • 2018-2019 | For Authors!

    From now on and for at least 1 year, we will only accept articles from authors that are NOT members of Discoveries' Editorial Board. All articles submitted by our editors will be immediately rejected until further notice (one accepted article was already rejected). 

  • 2018 | PubMed inclusion News!

    Discoveries successfully passed the Scientific Quality Review by NLM-NIH for PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing. This is the first and the most important step towards PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing! The second (last) step is the Technical Review.

  • 2016, April | Faster Peer-Review

    Starting on April 13th 2016, all articles selected for a peer-review will receive the post peer-review decision within ~10 days. The initial pre-screening time will remain the same (48h from the submission of the manuscript). This decision will significantly accelerate the publication, with no effect on the quality of the peer-review process.

  • 2016, February | Manuscript submission

    Discoveries is commited to excellence, quality and high editorial standards. We are receiving an increasing number of manuscripts for which the identity of the authors/corresponding author can't be verified. Please NOTE that ALL these articles were and will be immediately REJECTED. Indicating an institutional email address is the easiest way to overcome this problem! Moreover, we do not accept any pressure on our editorial board to accept a manuscript. This results in a prompt rejection of the article.

    Editorial Policies
  • 2016, January | Main Objective

    After reaching all proposed milestones until now (including being indexed by Google Scholar in 2014), Discoveries' next Aim is PubMed indexing of all its articles (already published and upcoming). There will be no charge for the submission or publication of articles before Discoveries is indexed.

  • 2015, August | Discoveries - on PubMed

    We are happy to announce that our first Discoveries articles were included in PMC and PubMed. More articles (submitted by NIH funded authors) are now processed for being included.

    Discoveries articles now on PubMed
  • 2015, April | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES published the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "INFLAMMATION BETWEEN DEFENSE AND DISEASE: Impact on Tissue Repair and Chronic Sickness".

    Special Issue on "Inflammation"
  • 2015 | Ischemia Collection

    DISCOVERIES launched a call for papers for a Collection of Articles with focus on "ISCHEMIA". If you are interested to submit a manuscript, please contact us at info@discoveriesjournals.org

  • 2014, September | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES just publish the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "CELL SECRETION & MEMBRANE FUSION" in September 2014. Initially scheduled for publication between October 2014-March 2015, this issue was successfully published earlier than scheduled. 

    Special Issue
  • 2014, April | Indexed by Google Scholar

    All our published articles are now indexed by Google Scholar! First citations to Discoveries articles are included! Search for the article's title (recommended) or the authors:

    Google Scholar Search
  • 2014 | DISCOVERIES

    DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) are now assigned to all our published manuscripts in Discoveries. DOI uniquely identifies an article and is provided by CrossRef.

    CrossRef
  • 2013, July | Manuscript Submission

    Submit your manuscript FREE, FAST and EASY ! (in less than 1 minute)! There are NO fees for the manuscript submission or publishing of the accepted manuscripts.
    read more

  • 2013, July | DISCOVERIES

    We are now ACCEPTING MANUSCRIPTS for publishing in DISCOVERIES. We aim publishing a small number of high impact experimental articles & reviews (around 40/year) to maintain a high impact factor. Domains of interest: all areas related to Medicine, Biology and Chemistry ...

    read more
Member Login
Free Registration Click here to sign up
Copyright © 2013 Applied Systems. All Rights Reserved.