Existing users Log In New users Sign up


Drug Repurposing for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19

DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232), 2020, October-December issue

CITATION: 

Hossain MS, Hami I, Sawrav MSS, Rabbi MF, Saha O, Bahadur NM, Rahaman MMDrug Repurposing for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Clinical Landscape. Discoveries 2020, 8(4): e121. DOI: 10.15190/d.2020.18


Submitted: October 20, 2020; Revised: November 17, 2020; Accepted: November 18, 2020; Published: December 16, 2020; 

 GO BACK to 2020, October-December issue

 GO BACK to DISCOVERIES

Drug Repurposing for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Clinical Landscape

Md. Shahadat Hossain (1), Ithmam Hami (1), Md. Sad Salabi Sawrav (1), Md. Fazley Rabbi (1), Otun Saha (2), Newaz Mohammed Bahadur (3), Md. Mizanur Rahaman (2,*)

(1) Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh

(2) Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

(3) Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh


*Corresponding author: Md. Mizanur Rahaman, Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000; Email: razu002@du.ac.bd; Phone: +8801796585290.

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus strain responsible for the current pandemic of COVID-19, has rendered the entire humanity suffering. Several months have passed since the pandemic has struck. However, the world is still looking for an effective treatment plan to battle the viral infection. The first vaccine just received emergency approval in December 2020 for use in USA and UK. These are excellent news, however, the worldwide distribution of such vaccine, the possibility of virus mutation and the lack of data regarding the long-term effects of such vaccines are a significant concern. In addition, although remdesivir was recently approved by the FDA to be used as a clinical drug against COVID-19, it hasn’t stood out yet as a proven form of therapeutics. Such inability to produce a novel therapy has caused enough inconveniences for the affected people worldwide. Repurposing the already available drugs to fight against the virus seems to be a reasonable option amidst such uncertainty. Given the vast collection of potential treatment candidates to be explored against COVID-19, there is a decent chance that a success in this regard will serve the intermediary purpose of clinically treating the infection until a COVID-19 vaccine is widely distributed worldwide and will be able to treat COVID-19 patients that do not adequately respond to vaccines. Such treatments may prove very useful in future coronavirus outbreaks too. Proper research into these repurposing treatments may yield a certain insight into the field of novel treatment production as well. This review study accumulates a relevant set of information about drugs and vaccines against COVID-19, in terms of their repurposing properties and the specific phases of clinical trials they are undergoing across the world.  A potential timeline is also suggested to estimate when an effective result can be expected from the ongoing clinical trials for a better anticipation of the drug landscape. This study will hopefully help accelerate investment of resources into development and discovery of drugs and vaccines against the infection.

Access full text of the manuscript here: 

References

1. Zhu, N., D. Zhang, W. Wang, X. Li, B. Yang, J. Song, et al., A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med, 2020; 382(8): 727-733.
2. Ahamad, M. M., Naznin, R. N., Saha, O., & Rahaman, M. M., Recommendation of fecal specimen for routine molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 and for COVID-19 discharge criteria. Pathogens and global health,2020; 114(4): 168-169.
3. Dyall, J., C.M. Coleman, B.J. Hart, T. Venkataraman, M.R. Holbrook, J. Kindrachuk, et al., Repurposing of clinically developed drugs for treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2014; 58(8): 4885-93.
4. Tan, E.L., E.E. Ooi, C.Y. Lin, H.C. Tan, A.E. Ling, B. Lim, et al., Inhibition of SARS coronavirus infection in vitro with clinically approved antiviral drugs. Emerg Infect Dis, 2004; 10(4): 581-6.
5. Agarwal, S. and C.H. June, Harnessing CAR T Cell Insights to Develop Treatments for Hyperinflammatory Responses in COVID-19 patients. Cancer Discovery, 2020; CD-20-0473.
6. Pachetti, M., B. Marini, F. Benedetti, F. Giudici, E. Mauro, P. Storici, et al., Emerging SARS-CoV-2 mutation hot spots include a novel RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase variant. J Transl Med, 2020; 18(1): 179.
7. Phan, T., Genetic diversity and evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Infect Genet Evol, 2020; 81:  104260.
8. Chakraborty, I. and P. Maity, COVID-19 outbreak: Migration, effects on society, global environment and prevention. Sci Total Environ, 2020; 728: 138882.
9. Saha, O., M.S. Hossain, and M.M. Rahaman, Genomic exploration light on multiple origin with potential parsimony-informative sites of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in Bangladesh. Gene Reports, 2020; 21: 100951.
10. Senanayake, S.L., Drug repurposing strategies for COVID-19. Future Drug Discov. 2020; 0(0):fdd-2020-0010. 
11. Saha, O., Rakhi, N. N., Towhid, S. T., and Rahaman, M. M.  Reactivation of Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2): Hoax or hurdle? International Journal of Healthcare Management, 2020; 13(3): 265-266.
12. Docea, A.O., A. Tsatsakis, D. Albulescu, O. Cristea et al., A new threat from an old enemy: Re‑emergence of coronavirus (Review). International journal of molecular medicine, 2020; 45(6): 1631-1643.
13. Chan-Yeung, M. and R.H. Xu, SARS: epidemiology. Respirology, 2003; 8 Suppl(Suppl 1): S9-14.
14. Organization, W.H., Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). 2019, www.who.int.
15. Fehr, A.R., R. Channappanavar, and S. Perlman, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Emergence of a Pathogenic Human Coronavirus. Annu Rev Med, 2017; 68: 387-399.
16. Viceconte, G. and N. Petrosillo, COVID-19 R0: Magic number or conundrum? Infect Dis Rep, 2020; 12(1): 8516.
17. Petrosillo, N., G. Viceconte, O. Ergonul, G. Ippolito, and E. Petersen, COVID-19, SARS and MERS: are they closely related? Clin Microbiol Infect, 2020.
18. Wu, F., S. Zhao, B. Yu, Y.M. Chen, W. Wang, Z.G. Song, et al., Author Correction: A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature, 2020; 580(7803):  E7.
19. Yang, Y., M.S. Islam, J. Wang, Y. Li, and X. Chen, Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Patients Infected with 2019-New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): A Review and Perspective. Int J Biol Sci, 2020; 16(10): 1708-1717.
20. Wu, R., L. Wang, H.D. Kuo, A. Shannar, R. Peter, et al., An Update on Current Therapeutic Drugs Treating COVID-19. Curr Pharmacol Rep, 2020; 1-15.
21. Luke, T.C., E.M. Kilbane, J.L. Jackson, and S.L. Hoffman, Meta-analysis: convalescent blood products for Spanish influenza pneumonia: a future H5N1 treatment? Ann Intern Med, 2006; 145(8): 599-609.
22. Casadevall, A. and L.A. Pirofski, Antibody-mediated regulation of cellular immunity and the inflammatory response. Trends Immunol, 2003; 24(9): 474-8.
23. Casadevall, A. and M.D. Scharff, Serum therapy revisited: animal models of infection and development of passive antibody therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 1994; 38(8):  1695-702.
24. Gunn, B.M., W.H. Yu, M.M. Karim, J.M. Brannan, A.S. Herbert, A.Z. Wec, et al., A Role for Fc Function in Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody-Mediated Protection against Ebola Virus. Cell Host Microbe, 2018; 24(2): 221-233 e5.
25. Zhang, J.S., J.T. Chen, Y.X. Liu, Z.S. Zhang, H. Gao, Y. Liu, et al., A serological survey on neutralizing antibody titer of SARS convalescent sera. J Med Virol, 2005; 77(2): 147-50.
26. Yeh, K.M., T.S. Chiueh, L.K. Siu, J.C. Lin, P.K. Chan, M.Y. Peng, et al., Experience of using convalescent plasma for severe acute respiratory syndrome among healthcare workers in a Taiwan hospital. J Antimicrob Chemother, 2005; 56(5): 919-22.
27. Ko, J.H., H. Seok, S.Y. Cho, Y.E. Ha, J.Y. Baek, S.H. Kim, et al., Challenges of convalescent plasma infusion therapy in Middle East respiratory coronavirus infection: a single centre experience. Antivir Ther, 2018; 23(7): 617-622.
28. Shen, C., Z. Wang, F. Zhao, Y. Yang, J. Li, J. Yuan, et al., Treatment of 5 Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 With Convalescent Plasma. JAMA, 2020.
29. Tang, N., D. Li, X. Wang, and Z. Sun, Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Thromb Haemost, 2020; 18(4): 844-847.
30. Crosby, J.C., M.A. Heimann, S.L. Burleson, B.C. Anzalone, J.F. Swanson, D.W. Wallace, et al., COVID-19: A review of therapeutics under investigation. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open, 2020.
31. Tu, Y.-F., C.-S. Chien, A.A. Yarmishyn, Y.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Luo, Y.-T. Lin, et al., A Review of SARS CoV-2 and the Ongoing Clinical Trials. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2020.
32. Cinatl, J., B. Morgenstern, G. Bauer, P. Chandra, H. Rabenau, and H.W. Doerr, Treatment of SARS with human interferons. Lancet, 2003; 362(9380): 293-4.
33. Rosa, S.G.V. and W.C. Santos, Clinical trials on drug repositioning for COVID-19 treatment. Revista panamericana de salud publica, Pan American Journal of Public Health, 2020; 44: e40-e40.
34. Lee, J.W., N. Gupta, V. Serikov, and M.A. Matthay, Potential application of mesenchymal stem cells in acute lung injury. Expert Opin Biol Ther, 2009. 9(10):  1259-70.
35. Li, Y., J. Xu, W. Shi, C. Chen, Y. Shao, L. Zhu, et al., Mesenchymal stromal cell treatment prevents H9N2 avian influenza virus-induced acute lung injury in mice. Stem Cell Res Ther, 2016; 7(1): 159.
36. Tsioris, K., N.T. Gupta, A.O. Ogunniyi, R.M. Zimnisky, F. Qian, Y. Yao, et al., Neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus identified directly from human B cells by single-cell analysis and next generation sequencing. Integr Biol (Camb), 2015; 7(12):  1587-97.
37. Zhou, G. and Q. Zhao, Perspectives on therapeutic neutralizing antibodies against the Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Int J Biol Sci, 2020; 16(10): 1718-1723.
38. Jolles, S., W.A. Sewell, and S.A. Misbah, Clinical uses of intravenous immunoglobulin. Clin Exp Immunol, 2005; 142(1): 1-11.
39. Elie, C.R, COVID-19 therapy and prevention. Discoveries 2020, 8(3): e113. DOI: 10.15190/ d.2020.10
40. Yaqinuddin, A. and J. Kashir, Innate immunity in COVID-19 patients mediated by NKG2A receptors, and potential treatment using Monalizumab, Chloroquine, and antiviral agents. Med Hypotheses, 2020; 140:  109777.
41. Andre, P., C. Denis, C. Soulas, C. Bourbon-Caillet, J. Lopez, T. Arnoux, et al., Anti-NKG2A mAb Is a Checkpoint Inhibitor that Promotes Anti-tumor Immunity by Unleashing Both T and NK Cells. Cell, 2018; 175(7):  1731-1743 e13.
42. van Hall, T., P. Andre, A. Horowitz, D.F. Ruan, L. Borst, R. Zerbib, et al., Monalizumab: inhibiting the novel immune checkpoint NKG2A. J Immunother Cancer, 2019; 7(1):  263.
43. Chen, J., Y.F. Lau, E.W. Lamirande, C.D. Paddock, J.H. Bartlett, et al., Cellular immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection in senescent BALB/c mice: CD4+ T cells are important in control of SARS-CoV infection. J Virol, 2010; 84(3): 1289-301.
44. Wang, C., J. Zhou, and C. Zong, Two cases report of epidemic stress disorder to novel coronavirus pneumonia. Asian J Psychiatr, 2020; 51:  102070.
45. Xu, J. and Y. Zhang, Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment of COVID-19. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 2020; 101165.
46. Siegel, D., H.C. Hui, E. Doerffler, M.O. Clarke, K. Chun, L. Zhang, et al., Discovery and Synthesis of a Phosphoramidate Prodrug of a Pyrrolo[2,1-f][triazin-4-amino] Adenine C-Nucleoside (GS-5734) for the Treatment of Ebola and Emerging Viruses. J Med Chem, 2017; 60(5): 1648-1661.
47. Mulangu, S., L.E. Dodd, R.T. Davey, Jr. O. Tshiani Mbaya, M. Proschan, et al., A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Ebola Virus Disease Therapeutics. N Engl J Med, 2019; 381(24): 2293-2303.
48. Sheahan, T.P., A.C. Sims, R.L. Graham, V.D. Menachery, L.E. Gralinski, J.B. Case, et al., Broad-spectrum antiviral GS-5734 inhibits both epidemic and zoonotic coronaviruses. Sci Transl Med, 2017; 9(396).
49. Agostini, M.L., E.L. Andres, A.C. Sims, R.L. Graham, T.P. Sheahan, X. Lu, et al., Coronavirus Susceptibility to the Antiviral Remdesivir (GS-5734) Is Mediated by the Viral Polymerase and the Proofreading Exoribonuclease. mBio, 2018; 9(2).
50. Wang, M., R. Cao, L. Zhang, X. Yang, J. Liu, M. Xu, et al., Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res, 2020; 30(3): 269-271.
51. Holshue, M.L., C. DeBolt, S. Lindquist, K.H. Lofy, J. Wiesman, H. Bruce, et al., First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med, 2020; 382(10): 929-936.
52. Lamb, Y.N., Remdesivir: First Approval. Drugs, 2020; 80(13): 1355-1363.
53. Furuta, Y., T. Komeno, and T. Nakamura, Favipiravir (T-705), a broad spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA polymerase. Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences, 2017; 93(7): 449-463.
54. Delang, L., R. Abdelnabi and J. Neyts, Favipiravir as a potential countermeasure against neglected and emerging RNA viruses. 2018; Antiviral Research 153:85-94.
55. Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Glenmark to Commence New Phase 3 Clinical Trial on Combination of Two Anti-viral Drugs Favipiravir and Umifenovir in Hospitalized Patients of Moderate COVID-19 in India. CISION PR Newswire, 2020.
56. Chu, C.M., V.C. Cheng, I.F. Hung, M.M. Wong, K.H. Chan, K.S. Chan, et al., Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: initial virological and clinical findings. Thorax, 2004; 59(3): 252-6.
57. Chan, J.F., Y. Yao, M.L. Yeung, W. Deng, L. Bao, L. Jia, et al., Treatment with Lopinavir/Ritonavir or Interferon-beta1b Improves Outcome of MERS-CoV Infection in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Common Marmoset. J Infect Dis, 2015; 212(12): 1904-13.
58. Chan, K.S., S.T. Lai, C.M. Chu, E. Tsui, C.Y. Tam, M.M. Wong, et al., Treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome with lopinavir/ritonavir: a multicentre retrospective matched cohort study. Hong Kong Med J, 2003; 9(6): 399-406.
59. Wagstaff, K.M., H. Sivakumaran, S.M. Heaton, D. Harrich, and D.A. Jans, Ivermectin is a specific inhibitor of importin alpha/beta-mediated nuclear import able to inhibit replication of HIV-1 and dengue virus. Biochem J, 2012; 443(3): 851-6.
60. Cao, B., Y. Wang, D. Wen, W. Liu, J. Wang, G. Fan, et al., A Trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med, 2020; 382(19): 1787-1799.
61. Savarino, A., J.R. Boelaert, A. Cassone, G. Majori, and R. Cauda, Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today's diseases? Lancet Infect Dis, 2003; 3(11):  722-7.
62. Vincent, M.J., E. Bergeron, S. Benjannet, B.R. Erickson, P.E. Rollin, T.G. Ksiazek, et al., Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread. Virol J, 2005; 2: 69.
63. Lan, L., D. Xu, G. Ye, C. Xia, S. Wang, Y. Li, et al., Positive RT-PCR Test Results in Patients Recovered From COVID-19. JAMA, 2020.
64. Gautret, P., J.C. Lagier, P. Parola, V.T. Hoang, L. Meddeb, M. Mailhe, et al., Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2020; 105949.
65. World Health Organization, WHO discontinues hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir treatment arms for COVID-19. www.who.int, July 04, 2020.
66. Kadam, R.U. and I.A. Wilson, Structural basis of influenza virus fusion inhibition by the antiviral drug Arbidol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2017; 114(2): 206-214.
67. Chen, C., J. Huang, Z. Cheng, J. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Zhang, et al., Favipiravir versus Arbidol for COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial. medRxiv, 2020.
68. Pandey, A., A.N. Nikam, A.B. Shreya, S.P. Mutalik, D. Gopalan, S. Kulkarni, et al., Potential therapeutic targets for combating SARS-CoV-2: Drug repurposing, clinical trials and recent advancements. Life Sciences, 2020; 256: 117883.
69. Monteil, V., H. Kwon, P. Prado, A. Hagelkruys, R.A. Wimmer, M. Stahl, et al., Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Engineered Human Tissues Using Clinical-Grade Soluble Human ACE2. Cell, 2020; 181(4): 905-913 e7.
70. Khan, A., C. Benthin, B. Zeno, T.E. Albertson, J. Boyd, J.D. Christie, et al., A pilot clinical trial of recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care, 2017; 21(1): 234.
71. Vargesson, N., Thalidomide-induced teratogenesis: history and mechanisms. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today, 2015. 105(2): 140-56.
72. Zhu, H., X. Shi, D. Ju, H. Huang, W. Wei, and X. Dong, Anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide on H1N1 influenza virus-induced pulmonary injury in mice. Inflammation, 2014; 37(6): 2091-8.
73. Archived, Aralen Phosphate, The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 2015.
74. Cortegiani, A., G. Ingoglia, M. Ippolito, A. Giarratano, and S. Einav, A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. J Crit Care, 2020; 57: 279-283.
75. Rebeaud, M.E. and F. Zores, SARS-CoV-2 and the Use of Chloroquine as an Antiviral Treatment. Frontiers in medicine, 2020; 7: 184-184.
76. Archived., "Azioni intraprese per favorire la ricerca e l'accesso ai nuovi farmaci per il trattamento del COVID-19" www.aifa.gov.it Retrieved 18 March 2020.
77. Kwak Sung-Sun., Physicians work out treatment guidelines for coronavirus. http://www.koreabiomed. com/news/articleView.html?idxno=7428, February 13, 2020, Korea Biomedical Review. Accessed on March 18, 2020.
78. Georgia Department of Public Health, Severe Illness Associated with Using Non-Pharmaceutical Chloroquine Phosphate to Prevent and Treat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). https://www.gachd.org/, March 28, 2020. Accessed on March 31, 2020.
79. Banner Health, Banner Health experts warn against self-medicating to prevent or treat COVID-19. https://www.newsbreak.com/, March 23, 2020. Accessed on March 25, 2020.
80. US FDA. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: Daily Roundup March 30, 2020. Accessed on March 30, 2020., www.fda.gov.
81. Drugs.com. Losartan. 2018; Available from: https://www.drugs.com/monograph/losartan-potassium.html.
82. Live Science Stuff, Treatments for COVID-19: Drugs being tested against the coronavirus. https://www.livescience .com/ coronavirus-covid-19-treatments.html, 2020.
83. Zhu, S., X. Guo, K. Geary, D. Zhang, Emerging Therapeutic Strategies for COVID-19 Patients. Discoveries. 2020; Jan-Mar; 8(1); e105.
84. Mesa, R.A., U. Yasothan, and P. Kirkpatrick, Ruxolitinib. Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2012; 11(2): 103-134.
83. Health Europa, Could azithromycin prevent NHS workers from developing COVID-19?  2020; https://www. healtheuropa.eu/
86. Harrison, C., R. Mesa, D. Ross, A. Mead, C. Keohane, J. Gotlib, et al., Practical management of patients with myelofibrosis receiving ruxolitinib. Expert Rev Hematol, 2013; 6(5): 511-23.
87. Vannucchi, A.M., J.J. Kiladjian, M. Griesshammer, T. Masszi, S. Durrant, F. Passamonti, et al., Ruxolitinib versus standard therapy for the treatment of polycythemia vera. N Engl J Med, 2015; 372(5): 426-35.
88. Mesa, R.A., Ruxolitinib, a selective JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms and psoriasis. IDrugs, 2010; 13(6):  394-403.
89. Cao, Y., J. Wei, L. Zou, T. Jiang, G. Wang, L. Chen, et al., Ruxolitinib in treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2020.
90. Tarnyila, D., Ruxolitinib Phase III Trial Initiated for Treatment of COVID-19 Cytokine Storm. Targeted Oncology, 2020.
91. Bechman, K., S. Subesinghe, S. Norton, F. Atzeni, M. Galli, A.P. Cope, et al., A systematic review and meta-analysis of infection risk with small molecule JAK inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford), 2019; 58(10): 1755-1766.
92. Michele B. Kaufman, P., BCGP, Baricitinib Studied as Possible COVID-19 Treatment; Plus Ranitidine Removed from U.S. Market. The Rheumatologist, 2020.
93. Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly begins clinical testing of therapies for COVID-19. https://investor.lilly.com/ news-releases/, 2020.
94. Chen, L., P. Liu, H. Gao, B. Sun, D. Chao, F. Wang, et al., Inhalation of nitric oxide in the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome: a rescue trial in Beijing. Clin Infect Dis, 2004. 39(10):  1531-5.
95. David J Cennimo, What is the role of nitric oxide in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? Medscape, 2020.
96. Senses, H., Vitamin C effective against COVID-19: Expert, in www.aa.com. 2020.
97. Villar, J., C. Ferrando, D. Martinez, A. Ambros, T. Munoz, J.A. Soler, et al., Dexamethasone treatment for the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med, 2020; 8(3): 267-276.
98. McClellan, K. and C.M. Perry, Oseltamivir: a review of its use in influenza. Drugs, 2001. 61(2): 263-83.
99. Whitley, R.J., F.G. Hayden, K.S. Reisinger, N. Young, R. Dutkowski, D. Ipe, et al., Oral oseltamivir treatment of influenza in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2001. 20(2):  127-33.
100. Leung, Y.Y., L.L. Yao Hui, and V.B. Kraus, Colchicine--Update on mechanisms of action and therapeutic uses. Semin Arthritis Rheum, 2015; 45(3): 341-50.
101. Deftereos, S., G. Giannopoulos, N. Papoutsidakis, V. Panagopoulou, C. Kossyvakis, K. Raisakis, et al., Colchicine and the heart: pushing the envelope. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2013; 62(20): 1817-25.
102. Cao, J., J.C. Forrest, and X. Zhang, A screen of the NIH Clinical Collection small molecule library identifies potential anti-coronavirus drugs. Antiviral Res, 2015; 114: 1-10.
103. Rossignol, J.F., Nitazoxanide, a new drug candidate for the treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Infect Public Health, 2016; 9(3):  227-30.
104. Norton Healthcare, A clinical trial of low-dose selinexor examines the drug as a potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatment for COVID-19. https://nortonhealthcare.com/news/, 2020.
105. TrialSiteNews, Brazilian Collaboration to Investigate Methotrexate to Treat Severe COVID-19 Cases. 2020; https://www.trialsitenews.com/
106. Healy, M., Drugs for heartburn, gout and depression now being tested as coronavirus treatments, Los Angeles Times. 2020.
107. Task Force BASE Medicine, COVID-19: Facts and Recommendations from A to Z. Sci Insights, 2020. 33(1): 138-158.
108. Prompetchara, E., C. Ketloy, and T. Palaga, Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2020. 38(1): 1-9.
109. Khuroo, M.S., M. Khuroo, M.S. Khuroo, A.A. Sofi, and N.S. Khuroo, COVID-19 vaccines: A race against time in the middle of death and devastation! Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology, 2020.
110. Shi, Y., N. Wang, and Q. Zou, Progress and challenge of vaccine development against 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Zhonghua yu Fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine], 2020; 54: E029-E029.
111. Liu, X., C. Liu, G. Liu, W. Luo, and N. Xia, COVID-19: Progress in diagnostics, therapy and vaccination. Theranostics, 2020; 10(17): 7821-7835.
112. Sheahan, T.P., A.C. Sims, S.R. Leist, A. Schäfer, J. Won, A.J. Brown, et al., Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV. Nature Communications, 2020; 11(1): 222.
113. Stanley, D.A., A.N. Honko, C. Asiedu, J.C. Trefry, A.W. Lau-Kilby, J.C. Johnson, et al., Chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine generates acute and durable protective immunity against ebolavirus challenge. Nat Med, 2014. 20(10): 1126-9.
114. Venkatraman, N., B.P. Ndiaye, G. Bowyer, D. Wade, S. Sridhar, D. Wright, et al., Safety and Immunogenicity of a Heterologous Prime-Boost Ebola Virus Vaccine Regimen in Healthy Adults in the United Kingdom and Senegal. J Infect Dis, 2019; 219(8): 1187-1197.
115. Antrobus, R.D., L. Coughlan, T.K. Berthoud, M.D. Dicks, A.V. Hill, T. Lambe, et al., Clinical assessment of a novel recombinant simian adenovirus ChAdOx1 as a vectored vaccine expressing conserved Influenza A antigens. Mol Ther, 2014; 22(3): 668-674.
116. Folegatti, P.M., M. Bittaye, A. Flaxman, F.R. Lopez, D. Bellamy, A. Kupke, et al., Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus viral-vectored vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, uncontrolled, phase 1 trial. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2020.
117. Al-Halifa, S., L. Gauthier, D. Arpin, S. Bourgault, D. Archambault, Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines Against Respiratory Viruses. Front Immunol, 2019; 10: 22.
118. Lundstrom, K., Coronavirus Pandemic - Therapy and Vaccines. Biomedicines, 2020; 8(5): 109.

News & Events Latest news from Discoveries

  • 2021, January| 2021 AWARDS!

    2021 DISCOVERIES AWARDS! Discoveries will offer a $1000 award and at least five $400 awards in Jan 2022, for the most cited (2021 ISI Citations) and visible (Altmetric Score) articles published in 2018-2021.

  • 2020, November| Follow us on Twitter!

    You can now follow the latest Discoveries news and updates on Twitter! (@DiscoveriesNews) 

  • 2020, August| For Authors!

    Due to a high volume of article submissions, our peer-review process takes more than usual. The pre-screening decision is released in 1-2 days, while the peer-review process lasts between 10 and 20 days.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    WE DO NOT TOLERATE ANY MISCONDUCT! Please be aware that we are testing all received articles with specialized software for PLAGIARISM and WE WILL TAKE MEASURES if your article is already published or in consideration for publication by other journals! This may result in serious professional consequences for the authors. The latest striking case is the following article which is already published and was re-submitted here.  

  • 2020, April | For Authors!

    We are happy to let you know that all articles published in Discoveries are now included in PubMedCentral (PMC). New accepted articles will be included in PMC and PubMed within 1-2 weeks after their publication.

  • 2020, January | For Authors!

    Starting in January 2020, Discoveries will also consider articles submitted by Discoveries' Editorial Board members. However, only a small number of such articles (maximum 4 articles/year) will be considered for publication after the peer-review process, and the authors who are also our editors will be clearly disclosed.  

  • 2019, September | Indexed by PMC

    Discoveries is now indexed by PubMedCentral and Pubmed. The agreement with US National Library of Medicine was signed on September 10, 2019. Our next step is ISI Web of Science indexing. NOTE: previously published articles will be included on PubMed in early 2020.

  • 2019, September | PubMed inclusion!

    We are happy to let you know that Discoveries successfuly passed the last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion!

  • 2019, July | PubMed inclusion News!

    We are happy to receive positive comments from PMC/NLM-NIH regarding Discoveries' last step (Technical Review) required for PubMedCentral and PubMed inclusion. We will let you know once whole indexing process is completed. 

  • 2019| Sharing and Distribution!

    All articles published in Discoveries are Open Access articles distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and it is not used for commercial purposes.

  • 2018-2019 | For Authors!

    From now on and for at least 1 year, we will only accept articles from authors that are NOT members of Discoveries' Editorial Board. All articles submitted by our editors will be immediately rejected until further notice (one accepted article was already rejected). 

  • 2018 | PubMed inclusion News!

    Discoveries successfully passed the Scientific Quality Review by NLM-NIH for PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing. This is the first and the most important step towards PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing! The second (last) step is the Technical Review.

  • 2016, April | Faster Peer-Review

    Starting on April 13th 2016, all articles selected for a peer-review will receive the post peer-review decision within ~10 days. The initial pre-screening time will remain the same (48h from the submission of the manuscript). This decision will significantly accelerate the publication, with no effect on the quality of the peer-review process.

  • 2016, February | Manuscript submission

    Discoveries is commited to excellence, quality and high editorial standards. We are receiving an increasing number of manuscripts for which the identity of the authors/corresponding author can't be verified. Please NOTE that ALL these articles were and will be immediately REJECTED. Indicating an institutional email address is the easiest way to overcome this problem! Moreover, we do not accept any pressure on our editorial board to accept a manuscript. This results in a prompt rejection of the article.

    Editorial Policies
  • 2016, January | Main Objective

    After reaching all proposed milestones until now (including being indexed by Google Scholar in 2014), Discoveries' next Aim is PubMed indexing of all its articles (already published and upcoming). There will be no charge for the submission or publication of articles before Discoveries is indexed.

  • 2015, August | Discoveries - on PubMed

    We are happy to announce that our first Discoveries articles were included in PMC and PubMed. More articles (submitted by NIH funded authors) are now processed for being included.

    Discoveries articles now on PubMed
  • 2015, April | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES published the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "INFLAMMATION BETWEEN DEFENSE AND DISEASE: Impact on Tissue Repair and Chronic Sickness".

    Special Issue on "Inflammation"
  • 2015 | Ischemia Collection

    DISCOVERIES launched a call for papers for a Collection of Articles with focus on "ISCHEMIA". If you are interested to submit a manuscript, please contact us at info@discoveriesjournals.org

  • 2014, September | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES just publish the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "CELL SECRETION & MEMBRANE FUSION" in September 2014. Initially scheduled for publication between October 2014-March 2015, this issue was successfully published earlier than scheduled. 

    Special Issue
  • 2014, April | Indexed by Google Scholar

    All our published articles are now indexed by Google Scholar! First citations to Discoveries articles are included! Search for the article's title (recommended) or the authors:

    Google Scholar Search
  • 2014 | DISCOVERIES

    DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) are now assigned to all our published manuscripts in Discoveries. DOI uniquely identifies an article and is provided by CrossRef.

    CrossRef
  • 2013, July | Manuscript Submission

    Submit your manuscript FREE, FAST and EASY ! (in less than 1 minute)! There are NO fees for the manuscript submission or publishing of the accepted manuscripts.
    read more

  • 2013, July | DISCOVERIES

    We are now ACCEPTING MANUSCRIPTS for publishing in DISCOVERIES. We aim publishing a small number of high impact experimental articles & reviews (around 40/year) to maintain a high impact factor. Domains of interest: all areas related to Medicine, Biology and Chemistry ...

    read more
Member Login
Free Registration Click here to sign up
Copyright © 2013 Applied Systems. All Rights Reserved.