Existing users Log In New users Sign up


Update of the 1972 Singer-Nicolson Fluid-Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure

DISCOVERIES (ISSN 2359-7232),2013, October-December

CITATION:
Nicolson GL. Update of the 1972 Singer-Nicolson Fluid-Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure. Discoveries 2013, Oct-Dec; 1(1): e3.
DOI: 10.15190/d.2013.3

Submitted: December 06, 2013; Accepted: December 27, 2013; Published: December 31, 2013;

GO BACK to 2013, Oct-Dec issue
GO BACK to DISCOVERIES

Update of the 1972 Singer-Nicolson Fluid-Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure


PhD*


Affiliation:
The Institute for Molecular Medicine, Department of Molecular Pathology, Huntington Beach, CA, USA

*Corresponding author: Prof. Emeritus Garth L. Nicolson, Ph.D, The Institute for Molecular Medicine, P.O. Box 9355, S. Laguna Beach, CA 92652 USA. Email: gnicolson@immed.org


Abstract

The Fluid-Mosaic Membrane Model of cell membrane structure was based on thermodynamic principals and the available data on component lateral mobility within the membrane plane [Singer SJ, Nicolson GL. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the structure of cell membranes. Science 1972; 175: 720-731]. After more than forty years the model remains relevant for describing the basic nano-scale structures of a variety of biological membranes. More recent information, however, has shown the importance of specialized membrane domains, such as lipid rafts and protein complexes, in describing the macrostructure and dynamics of biological membranes. In addition, membrane-associated cytoskeletal structures and extracellular matrix also play roles in limiting the mobility and range of motion of membrane components and add new layers of complexity and hierarchy to the original model. An updated Fluid-Mosaic Membrane Model is described, where more emphasis has been placed on the mosaic nature of cellular membranes where protein and lipid components are more crowded and limited in their movements in the membrane plane by lipid-lipid, protein-protein and lipid-protein interactions as well as cell-matrix, cell-cell and cytoskeletal interactions. These interactions are important in restraining membrane components and maintaining the unique mosaic organization of cell membranes into functional, dynamic domains.

Access full text of the manuscript here:

References

1. Singer SJ, Nicolson GL. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the structure of cell membranes. Science 1972; 175: 720-731.
2. Danielli JF, Davson H. A contribution to the theory of permeability of thin films. J. Cell Comp. Physiol. 1935; 5: 495-508.
3. Robertson JD. The ultrastructure of cell membranes and their derivatives. Biochem. Soc. Symp. 1959; 16: 3-43.
4. Gorter E, Grendel F. On bimolecular layers of lipoids on the chyromocytes of the blood. J. Exp. Med. 1925; 41: 439-443.
5. Robertson JD. The molecular structure and contact relationships of cell membranes. Prog. Biophys. Biophysical Chem. 1960; 10: 343-418.
6. Pinto da Silva P, Branton D. Membrane splitting in freeze-etching. Covalently bound ferritin as a membrane marker. J. Cell Biol. 1970; 45: 598-605.
7. Benson AA. On the orientation of lipids in chloroplast and cell membranes. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 1966; 43: 265-270.
8. Green DE, Allmann DW, Bachmann E, Baum H, Kopaczyk K, Korman EF, et al. Formation of membranes by repeating units. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1987; 119: 312-335.
9. Nicolson GL. Transmembrane control of the receptors on normal and tumor cells. I. Cytoplasmic influence over cell surface surface components. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1976; 457: 57-108.
10. Nicolson GL. The Fluid—Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure: still relevant to understanding the structure, function and dynamics of biological membranes after more than 40 years. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2013; 1838: Nov 1. doi: pii: S0005-2736(13)00393-3. 10.1016/j.bbamem.2013.10.019.
11. Nicolson GL, Ji T, Poste G. Dynamic Aspects of Cell Surface Organization. In: The dynamics of cell membrane organization. (Poste G, Nicolson GL, Eds.), Elsevier, New York, 1977, pp. 1-73.
12. Edidin M. Lipids on the frontier: a quarter century of cell-membrane bilayers. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2003; 4: 414-418.
13. Singer SJ. 1971 The molecular organization of membranes. In: Structure and Function of Biological Membranes (Rothfield LI, Ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1971, pp. 145-222.
14. Singer SJ. The molecular organization of membranes. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 1974; 43: 805-833.
15. Singer SJ. The structure and insertion of integral proteins in membranes. Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 1990; 6: 247-296.
16. von Heijne G. Transcending the impenetrable: how proteins come to terms with membranes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1988; 947: 307-333.
17. von Heijne G. Membrane-protein topology. Nat. Rev. Molec. Biol. 2006; 7: 909-918.
18. Bretscher MS. Membrane structure: some general principals. Science 1973; 181: 622-829.
19. de Weer P. A century of thinking about cell membranes. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 2000; 62: 919-926.
20. van Meer G, Voelker DR, Feigenson GW. Membrane lipids. Where they are and how they behave. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2008; 9: 112-124.
21. Bagatolli LA, Ipsen JH, Simonsen AC, Mouritsen OG. An outlook on the organization of lipids in membranes: searching for a realistic connection with the organization of biological membranes. Prog. Lipid Res. 2010; 49: 378-389.
22. Zhang F, Lee GM, Jacobson K. Protein lateral mobility as a reflection of membrane microstructure. Bioessays 1993; 15: 579-588.
23. Jacobson K, Sheets ED, Simson R. Revisiting the fluid mosaic model of membranes. Science 195; 268:1441-1442.
24. Verbe G, Szöllosi J, Matkó J, Nagy P, Farkas T, Vigh L, et al. Dynamic, yet structured: The cell membrane three decades after the Singer-Nicolson model. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2003; 100: 8053-8058.
25. Winiewska A, Draus J, Subczynski WK. Is the fluid-mosaic model of biological membranes fully relevant? Studies on lipid organization in model and biological membranes. Cell Mol. Biol. Lett. 2003; 8: 147-159.
26. Kusumi A, Suzuki KG, Kasai RS, Ritchie K, Fujiwara TK. Hierarchical mesoscale domain organization of the plasma membrane. Trends Biochem. Sci. 2011; 36: 604-615.
27. Kusumi A, Fujiwara TK, Chadda R, Xie M, Tsunoyama TA, Kalay Z, et al. Dynamic organizing principals of the plasma membrane that regulate signal transduction: commemorating the fortieth anniversary of Singer and Nicolson’s fluid-mosaic model. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 2012; 28: 215-250.
28. Kusumi A, Sako Y. Cell surface organization by the membrane skeleton. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 1996; 8: 566-574.
29. Kusumi A, Sako Y, Yamamoto YM. Confined lateral diffusion of membrane receptors as studied by single particle tracking (nanovid microscopy). Effects of calcium-induced differentiation in cultured epithelial cells. Biophys. J. 1993; 65: 2021-2040.
30. Jacobson K, Mouritsen OG, Anderson RGW. Lipid rafts: at a crossroad between cell biology and physics. Nat. Cell Biol. 2007; 9: 7-14.
31. Simons K, Toomre D. Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2000; 1: 31-39.
32. Lavi Y, Edidin MA, Gheber LA. Dynamic patches of membrane proteins. Biophys. J. 2007; 93: L35-L37.
33. Escribá PV, Gonzáles-Ros JM, Goñi FM, Kinnunen PKJ, Vigh L, Sánchez-Magraner L, et al. Membranes: a meeting point for lipids, proteins and therapies. J. Cell Mol. Med. 2008; 12: 829-875.
34. Lajoie P, Goetz JG, Dennis JW, Nabi IR. Lattices, rafts and scaffolds: domain regulation of receptor signaling at the plasma membrane. J. Cell Biol. 2009; 185: 381-385.
35. Lingwood D, Simons K. Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science 2010; 327: 46-50.
36. He H-T, Marguet D. Detecting nanodomains in living cell membranes by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 2011; 62: 417-436.
37. Quinn PJ. A lipid matrix model of membrane raft structure. Prog. Lipid Res. 2010; 49: 390-406.
38. Kauzmann W. Some factors in the interpretation of protein denaturing. Adv. Protein Chem. 1959; 14: 1-63.
39. Cramer WA, Engelman DM, von Heijne G, Rees DC. Forces involved in the assembly and stabilization of membrane proteins. FASEB J. 1992; 6: 3397-3402.
40. Israelachvili JN. Refinement of the Fluid-Mosaic Model of membrane structure. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1977; 469: 221-225.
41. Jacobson K, Ishihara A, Inman R. Lateral diffusion of proteins in membranes. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 1987; 49: 163-175.
42. Watts A. Membrane structure and dynamics. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 1989; 1: 691-700.
43. Gil T, Ipsen JH, Mouritsen OG, Sabra MC, Sperotto MM, Zuckermann MJ. Theoretical analysis of protein organization in lipid membranes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1998; 1376: 245-266.
44. Simons K, Vaz WL. Model systems, lipid rafts, and cell membranes. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 2004; 33: 269-295.
45. Simons K, Sampaio JL. Membrane organization and lipid rafts. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect Biol. 2010; 3: a004697. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a004697.
46. Zimmerberg J, Gawrich JK. The physical chemistry of biological membranes. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2006; 11: 564-567.
47. McMahon HT, Gallop JL. Membrane curvature and mechanisms of dynamic cell membrane modeling. Nature 2005; 438: 590-596.
48. Mouritsen OG, Bloom M. 1984 Mattress model of lipid-protein interactions in membranes. Biophys. J. 1984; 46: 141-153.
49. Chernomordik LV, Kozlov MM. Protein-lipid interplay in fusion and fission of biological membranes. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2003; 72: 175-207.
50. Zimmerberg J, Kozlov MM. How proteins produce cellular membrane curvature. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2006; 7: 9-19.
51. Baumgart T, Capraro BR, Zhu C, Das SL. Theromodynamics and mechanics of membrane curvature generation and sensing by proteins and lipids. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 2011; 62: 483-506.
52. Frost A, Unger VM, De Camilli P. The BAR domain superfamily: membrane-molding macromolecules. Cell 2009; 137: 191-196.
53. Antonny B. Membrane deformation by protein coats. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 2006; 18: 386-394.
54. Rothman JE, Lenard J. Membrane asymmetry. Science 1977; 195: 743-753.
55. Ftemadi A-H. Membrane asymmetry: a survey and critical appraisal of the methodology. II. Methods for assessing the unequal distribution of lipids. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1980; 604: 423-475.
56. Stoeckenius W, Engelman DM. Current models for the structure of biological membranes. J. Cell Biol. 1969; 42: 613-646.
57. Pomorski TS, Hrafnsdottir S, Devaux PF, van Meer G. Lipid distribution and transport across cellular membranes. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 2001; 12: 139-148.
58. Daleke DL. Regulation of transbilayer plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry. J. Lipid Res. 2003; 44: 233-242.
59. Sharom FJ. Flipping and flopping—lipids on the move. IUBMB Life 2011; 63: 736-746.
60. Quinn PJ. Plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry. Subcell. Biochem. 2002; 36: 39-60.
61. Brown DA, London E. Structure of ordered lipid domains in biological membranes. J. Membr. Biol. 1998; 164: 103-114.
62. Ohvo-Rekilä H, Ramstedt B, Leppimäki P, Slotte JP. Cholesterol interactions with phospholipids in membranes. Prog. Lipid Res. 2002; 41: 66-97.
63. Silvius JR. Partitioning of membrane molecules between raft and non-raft domains: insights from model-membrane studies. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2005; 1746: 193-202.
64. von Heijne G. Recent advances in the understanding of membrane protein assembly and structure. Quart Rev Biophys 2000; 32: 285-307.
65. Edidin M, Weiss A. Antigen cap formation in cultured fibroblasts: a reflection of membrane fluidity and cell motility. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1972; 69: 2456-2459.
66. Poste G, Papahadjopoulos D, Nicolson GL. Local anesthetics affect transmembrane cytoskeletal control of mobility and distribution of cell surface receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1975; 72: 4430-4434.
67. Bourguigon LY, Singer SJ. Transmembrane interactions and the mechanism of capping of surface receptors by their specific ligands. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1977; 74: 5031-5035.
68. Unanue ER, Perkins WD, Karnovsky MJ. Ligand-induced movement of lymphocyte membrane macromolecules. I. Analysis by immunofluorescence and ultrastructural radioautography. J. Exp. Med. 1972; 136: 885-906.
69. Geiger B, Yehuda-Levenberg S, Bershadsky AD. Molecular interactions in the submembrane plaque of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. Acta Anat. (Basel) 1995; 154: 42-62.
70. Fuchs E, Cleveland DW. A structural scaffolding of intermediate filaments in health and disease. Science 1998; 279: 1897-1907.
71. Chichili CR, Rogers W. Cytoskeleton-membrane interactions in membrane raft structure. Cell Mol. Life Sci. 2009; 66: 2319-2328.
72. Nicolson GL, Poste G. Lectin-mediated agglutination of murine lymphoma cells. Cell surface deformability and reversibility of agglutination by saccharides. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1979; 554: 520-531.
73. Salas PJ, Vega-Salas DE, Hochman J, Rodriguez-Boulan E, Edidin M. Selective anchoring in the specific plasma membrane domain: a role in epithelial cell polarity. J. Cell Biol. 1988; 107: 2363-2376.
74. Kobialka S, Beuret N, Ben-Tekya H, Spiess M. Gycosaminoglycan chains affect exocytic and endocytic protein traffic. Traffic 2009; 10: 1845-1855.
75. Geiger B. Membrane-cytoskeletal interaction. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1983; 737: 305-341.
76. Roca-Cusach P, Iskratsch T, Sheetz MP. Finding the weakest link—exploring integrin-mediated mechanical molecular pathways. J Cell Sci. 2012; 125: 3025-3038.
77. Geiger B, Bershadsky A. Assembly and mechanosensory function of focal contacts. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 2001; 13: 584-592.
78. Geiger B, Bershadsky A, Pankov R, Yamada KM. Transmembrane extracellular matrix-cytoskeleton crosstalk. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2001; 2: 793-805.
79. Sheetz MP. Cell control by membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2001; 2: 392-396.
80. Parsons JT, Horwitz AR, Schwartz MA. Cell adhesion. Integrating cytoskeletal dynamics and cellular tension. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2010; 11: 633-643.
81. Anitei M, Hoflack B. Bridging membrane and cytoskeleton dynamics in the secretory and endocytic pathways. Nat. Cell Biol. 2011; 14: 11-19.
82. Jaqaman K, Grinstein S. Regulation from within: the cytoskeleton in transmembrane signaling. Trends Cell Biol. 2012; 22: 515-526.
83. Weirich CS, Erzberger JP, Barral Y. The septin family of GTPases: architecture and dynamics. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2008; 9: 478-489.
84. Hagiwara A, Taaka Y, Hikawa R, Morone N, Kusumi A, Kimura H, et al. Submembranous septins as relatively stable components of actin-based membrane skeleton. Cytoskeleton 2011; 68: 512-525.
85. Mostowy S, Cossart P. Septins: the fourth component of the cytoskeleton. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2012; 13: 183-194.
86. Schwarz US, Gardel ML. United we stand: integrating the actin cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions in cellular mechanotransduction. J. Cell Sci. 2012; 125: 3051-3060.
87. Janmey PA, Lindberg U. Cytoskeletal regulation: rich in lipids. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2004; 5: 658-666.
88. Hollenberg MD. Structure-activity relationships for transmembrane signaling: the receptor’s turn. FASEB J. 1991; 5: 178-186.
89. Jordan JD, Landau EM, Iyengar R. Signaling networks: the origins of cellular multitasking. Cell 2000; 103: 193-200.
90. Cho W. Building signaling complexes at the membrane. Sci. STKE 2006; 2006: pe7.
91. Damjanovich S, Gáspár R Jr, Pieri C. Dynamic receptor superstructures at the plasma membrane. Q Rev Biophys 1997; 30: 67-106.
92. Campbell ID, Humphries MJ. Integrin structure, activation and interactions. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 2011; 3: a004994.
93. Somerharju P, Virtanen JA, Cheng KH. Lateral organization of membrane lipids. The superlattice view. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1999; 1440: 32-48.
94. Ramstedt B, Slotte JP. Sphingolipids and the formation of sterol-enriched ordered membrane domains. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2006; 1758: 1945-1956.
95. Lindblom G, Orädd G. Lipid lateral diffusion and membrane heterogeneity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2009; 1788: 234-244.
96. Mouritsen OG. Model answers to lipid membrane questions. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 2011; 3: a004622.
97. Quinn PJ. Lipid-lipid interactions in bilayer membranes: married couples and casual liaisons. Prog. Lipid Res. 2012; 31: 179-198.
98. Aittoniemi J, Niemela PS, Hyvonen MT, Karttunen M, Vattulainen I. Insight into the putative specific interactions between cholesterol, sphingomyelin, and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine. Biophys. J. 2007; 92: 1125–1137.
99. Zhang Z, Bhide SY, Berkowitz ML. Molecular dynamics simulations of bilayers containing mixtures of sphingomyelin with cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine with cholesterol. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007; 111: 12888–12897.
100. Lingwood D, Kiser H-J, Levental I, Simons K. Lipid rafts as functional heterogeneity in cell membranes. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2009; 37: 955-560.
101. Quinn PJ, Wolf C. The liquid-ordered phase in membranes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2009; 1788: 33-46.
102. Simons K, Ikonen E. Functional rafts in cell membranes. Nature 1997; 387: 569-572.
103. Mayor S, Rao M. Rafts; scale-dependent, active lipid organization at the cell surface. Traffic 2004; 5: 231-240.
104. Simons K, Gerl MJ. Revitalizing membrane rafts: new tools and insights. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2010; 11: 688-699.
105. Sengupta P, Baird B, Holowka D. Lipid rafts, fluid/fluid phase separation, and their relevance to plasma membrane structure and function. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 2007; 18: 583-590.
106. Neumann AK, Itano MS, Jacobson K. Understanding lipid rafts and other related membrane domains. F1000 Biol. Rep. 2010; 2: 31-36.
107. Suzuki KG. Lipid rafts generate digital-like signal transduction in cell plasma membranes. Biotechnol. J. 2012; 7: 753-761.
108. Kusumi A, Hyde JS. Spin-label saturation-transfer electron spin resonance detection of transient association of rhodopsin in reconstituted membranes. Biochemistry 1982; 21: 5978-5983
109. Sharma P, Varma R, Sarsij RC, Ira, Gousett K, Krishnamoorthy G, et al. Nanoscale organization of multiple GPI-anchored proteins in living cell membranes. Cell 2004; 20: 577-589.
110. Somerharju P, Virtanen JA, Cheng KH, Hermansson M. The superlattice model of lateral organization of membranes and its implications on membrane lipid homeostasis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2009; 1788: 12-23.
111. Israelachvili JN, Marcelja S, Hom RG. Physical principals of membrane organization. Q. Rev. Biophys. 1980; 13: 121-200.
112. Dumas F, Lebrun MC, Tocanne J-F. Is the protein/lipid hydrophobic matching principle relevant to membrane organization and functions? FEBS Lett. 1999; 458: 271-277.
113. Andersen OS, Koeppe RE 2nd. Bilayer thickness and membrane protein function: an energetic perspective. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 2007; 36: 107-130.
114. Mouritsen OG. Lipids, curvature and nano-medicine. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2011; 113: 1174-1187.
115. Gill T, Sabra MC, Ipsen JH, Mouritsen OG. Wetting and capillary condensation as a means of protein organization in membranes. Biophys J. 1997; 73: 1728-1741.
116. Edidin M, Kuo SC, Sheetz MP. Lateral movements of membrane glycoproteins restricted by dynamic cytoplasmic barriers. Science 1991; 254: 1379-1382.
117. Doherty GJ, McMahon HT. Mediation, modulation, and consequences of membrane-cytoskeletal interactions. Annu. Rev. Biophys. 2008; 37: 65-95.

GO BACK to the 2013, Oct-Dec issue
GO BACK to DISCOVERIES
MEET OUR EDITORIAL BOARD
SUBMIT A MANUSCRIPT

Email Email us at info@discoveriesjournals.org if you have any questions.

News & Events Latest news from our journals.

  • 2018 | For Authors!

    PMC highlighted that a high proportion of authors of Discoveries articles are also members of our Editorial Board. As a result, from now on and for at least 1 year, we will only accept articles from authors that are NOT members of Discoveries' Editorial Board. All articles submitted by our members will be immediately rejected until further notice. 

  • 2017-2018 | PubMed inclusion News!

    Discoveries successfully passed the Scientific Quality Review by NLM-NIH for PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing. This is the first and the most important step towards PubMedCentral and PubMed indexing! The second (last) step is the Technical Review.

  • April 2016 | Faster Peer-Review

    Starting on April 13th, all articles selected for a peer-review will receive the post peer-review decision within 10 days. The initial pre-screening time will remain the same (48h from the submission of the manuscript). This decision will significantly accelerate the publication, with no effect on the quality of the peer-review process.

  • February 2016 | Manuscript submission

    Discoveries is commited to excellence, quality and high editorial standards. We are receiving an increasing number of manuscripts for which the identity of the authors/corresponding author can't be verified. Please NOTE that ALL these articles were and will be immediately REJECTED. Indicating an institutional email address is the easiest way to overcome this problem! Moreover, we do not accept any pressure on our editorial board to accept a manuscript. This results in a prompt rejection of the article.

    Editorial Policies
  • January 2016 |Discoveries-AIM

    After reaching all proposed milestones until now (including being indexed by Google Scholar in 2014), Discoveries' next Aim is PubMed indexing of all its articles (already published and upcoming). There will be no charge for the submission or publication of articles in Discoveries before PubMed indexing.

  • August 2015 | Discoveries - on PubMed

    We are happy to announce that our first Discoveries articles were included in PMC and PubMed. More articles (submitted by NIH funded articles) are now processed for being included.

    Discoveries articles now on PubMed
  • April 2015 | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES publish the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "INFLAMMATION BETWEEN DEFENSE AND DISEASE: Impact on Tissue Repair and Chronic Sickness".

    Special Issue on "Inflammation"
  • 2015 | Ischemia Collection

    DISCOVERIES launched a call for papers for a Collection of Articles with focus on "ISCHEMIA". If you are interested to submit a manuscript, please contact us at info@discoveriesjournals.org

  • October 2014 | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES launched a call for papers, for the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "INFLAMMATION BETWEEN DEFENSE AND DISEASE: Impact on Tissue Repair and Chronic Sickness".

  • September 2014 | Special Issue

    DISCOVERIES just publish the SPECIAL ISSUE entitled "CELL SECRETION & MEMBRANE FUSION" in September 2014. Initially scheduled for publication between October 2014-March 2015, this issue was successfully published earlier than scheduled. 

    Special Issue
  • April 2014 | Indexed by Google Scholar

    All our published articles are now indexed by Google Scholar! Current citations for each individual article published in either Discoveries or Discoveries Reports are also shown. First citations to Discoveries articles are included! Search for the article's title or the authors:

    Google Scholar Search

  • July 2013 | Manuscript Submission

    Submit your manuscript FREE, FAST and EASY ! (in less than 1 minute)
    There are NO fees for the manuscript submission or publishing of the accepted manuscripts.

    Read more

  • July 2013 | DISCOVERIES

    We are now ACCEPTING MANUSCRIPTS for publishing in DISCOVERIES. We aim to publish a small number of high impact experimental articles & reviews (around 40/year) to maintain a high impact factor. Domains of interest: all areas related to Medicine, Biology and Chemistry ...

    Read more

  • July 2013 | DISCOVERIES REPORTS

    We are now ACCEPTING MANUSCRIPTS for DISCOVERIES REPORTS, publishing inovative and important research findings from all areas related to Medicine, Biology and Chemistry. We are also accepting experimental articles that validate/invalidate highly used reagents in current publications (ex. antibodies) and selected articles presenting negative data with impact and of wide scientific interest ...

    Read more

Member Login
Free Registration Click here to sign up
Copyright © 2013 Applied Systems. All Rights Reserved.